Substations can be constructed partly or entirely within aboveground or belowground enclosures.
However, cost is high and complexity is increased by fire-protection and heat-removal needs. The following discussion deals with exposed aboveground substations.
The bus and associated substation equipment are exposed and directly visible. An outdoor bus may be multitiered or spread out at one level. Metal or wood structures and insulators support such bus and power line terminations.
Space permitting, a low-profile bus layout is generally best for aesthetics and is the easiest to conceal with landscaping, walls, and enclosures.
In dry climates, a low-profile bus can be achieved by excavating the earth area, within which outdoor bus facilities are then located for an even lower profile.
Metal-enclosed or metal-clad switchgear designs that house the bus and associated equipment in a metal enclosure are an alternative design for distribution voltages. These designs provide a compact low-profile installation that may be aesthetically acceptable.
Gas insulated substation (GIS)
Bus and associated equipment can be housed within pipe-type enclosures using sulfur hexafluoride or another similar gas for insulation. Not only can this achieve considerable compactness and reduced site preparation for higher voltages, but it can also be installed lower to the ground.
A GIS can be an economically attractive design where space is at a premium, especially if a building-type enclosure will be used to house substation equipment (see IEEE Std. C37.123-1996).
Short sections of overhead or underground cables can be used at substations, although this use is normally limited to distribution voltages (e.g., for feeder getaways or transformer-to-switchgear connections).
At higher voltages, underground cable can be used for line-entries or to resolve a specific connection problem.
Audible noise, particularly continuously radiated discrete tones (e.g., from power transformers), is the type of noise that the community may find unacceptable.
Where noise is a potential concern, field measurements of the area background noise levels and computer simulations predicting the impact of the substation may be required. The cost of implementing noise reduction solutions (low-noise equipment, barriers or walls, noise cancellation techniques, etc.) may become a significant factor when a site is selected.
Noise can be transmitted as a pressure wave either through the air or through solids. The majority of cases involving the observation and measurement of noise have dealt with noise being propagated through the air. However, there are reported, rare cases of audible transformer noise appearing at distant observation points by propagating through the transformer foundation and underground solid rock formations.
It is best to avoid the situation by isolating the foundation from bedrock where the conditions are thought to favor transmission of vibrations.
Resource: Electric power substation engineering by J. McDonald