Category Archive for: «Automation»

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9 Reasons For Automation Of Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing automation Automated manufacturing systems operate in the factory on the physical product. They perform operations such as processing, assembly, inspection, or material handling, in some cases accomplishing more than one of these operations in the same system. They are called automated because they perform their operations with a reduced level of human participation compared […]

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Basic PLC program for control of a three-phase AC motor (for beginners)

Motor Starter // While the lighting control system previously discussed is useful to explain basic PLC operation, a more practical, and only slightly more complex, application is start-stop control of an AC motor. Before examining the PLC program, first consider a hard-wired approach. The following line diagram illustrates how a normally open and a normally […]

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The Design Basics Of Motor Protection Circuit Breaker

Motor protection circuit breaker (MPCB) // Application-specific variations of the MCCB, these breakers combine the short-circuit and isolation functionality of the MCCB with the motor overcurrent protection of a traditional overload relay. MPCBs are UL 489 Listed as circuit breakers and verified as motor overload relays. These devices are traditionally used in two component starter applications, […]

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PLC Ladder Logic Functions for Electrical Engineers (Beginners)

TRUE or FALSE condition // To understand programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and their applications, you must first understand the logic concepts behind them. We’ll will explain the relationship between Boolean algebra and logic contact symbology, so that you will be ready to learn about PLC processors and ladder logic functions and diagrams. The binary concept […]

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PLC Ladder Diagrams for Electrical Engineers (Beginners)

Introduction to PLC ladder diagrams // As an introduction to ladder diagrams, consider the simple wiring diagram for an electrical circuit in Figure 1a. The diagram shows the circuit for switching on or off an electric motor. We can redraw this diagram in a different way, using two vertical lines to represent the input power […]

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Comparison of 4 Different Flow Control Methods Of Pumps

Pump as a part of the process // When in use, the pumps are always part of a pumping system. A pumping system is usually a network of pipes, tanks, valves and other system parts. The receiver is usually at a higher geographic level than the supply of the system. These parts can be also […]

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Electrical Braking Of Asynchronous Motors – The Guidelines

Electrical braking of 3-phase motor // In many industrial systems, motors are stopped simply by natural deceleration. The time this takes depends solely on the inertia and resistive torque of the machine the motor drives. However, the time often needs to be cut down and electrical braking is a simple and efficient solution. Compared to […]

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Hardware Implementation of Substation Control and Automation

Substation control system // To form a substation control system, the various elements described above must be assembled into some form of topology. Three major hardware topologies can be identified as being commonly used, as follows: HMI based Topology RTU based Topology Decentralised Topology HMI based Topology This takes the form of Figure 1. The software to implement the […]

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Applying Variable Speed Drives To Control Pressure

Pressure Control Pump Station // Using variable speed drives (VSDs) to control pressure reduces the electrical energy requirements by reducing the amount of hydraulic energy actually produced. A basic pressure control pump station is equipped with one pump controlled by one variable speed drive (VSD). In some pump stations, pumps connected in parallel are a more […]

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Modernizing Hardwired Relay Logic With PLCs

Benefits of PLC programmed logic // This technical article presents the modernization of a machine control system that will be changed from an old hardwired relay logic to PLC programmed logic. The field devices to be used will remain the same, with the exception of those that the controller can implement (e.g., timers, control relays, […]

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