Category Archive for: «Automation»

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A Few Words About Selecting AC Induction Motors for Cement Plant Applications

Introduction This technical article relies on the great paper written by Barton J. Sauer (Siemens Energy & Automation) which goes into essence of selecting the proper AC motor for cement plant applications. Although motors may appear to be the least complicated component in the specification of cement mill equipment, this article shall try to demonstrate that cement plant […]

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PLC application for reduced voltage-start motor control

Reduced-voltage-start motor control circuit Figure 1 shown below illustrates the control circuit and wiring diagram of a 65% tapped, autotransformer, reduced-voltage-start motor control circuit. This reduced voltage start minimizes the inrush current at the start of the motor (locked rotor current) to 42% of that at full speed. In this example, the timer must be set to […]

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Effects of Speed Variation on Rotodynamic Pumps

Varying the rotational speed A rotodynamic pump is a dynamic device with the head generated by a rotating impeller. Thus, there is a relationship between impeller peripheral velocity and generated head. Peripheral velocity is directly related to shaft rotational speed, for a fixed impeller diameter. Varying the rotational speed therefore has a direct effect on […]

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10 Strategies for Automation and Production Systems

Understand, simplify and automate the process Following the USA Principle is a good first step in any automation project. The USA Principle is a common sense approach to automation projects. Similar procedures have been suggested in the manufacturing and automation trade literature, but none has a more captivating title than this one. USA stands for: […]

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Purpose and Working Principle of Inductive Sensors

Inductive sensors use currents induced by magnetic fields to detect nearby metal objects. The inductive sensor uses a coil (an inductor) to generate a high frequency magnetic field as shown in Figure 1 below. If there is a metal object near the changing magnetic field, current will flow in the object. This resulting current flow […]

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PLC implementation of the bottle-filling application

Detection of position In this example (see Figure 1), we will implement a control program that detects the position of a bottle via a limit switch, waits 0.5 seconds, and then fills the bottle until a photosensor detects a filled condition. After the bottle is filled, the control program will wait 0.7 seconds before moving to […]

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Let’s start learning the PLC programming

Introduction For managing and control of the electrical systems there once were used electromechanical relays. In time as tehnology advanced came and PLC devices (Programable Logics Controlers). Also there is the finance aspect since now PLC are cheaper then relays. PLC Components Every PLC is consists from a couple components. Each manufacturer gives his combination […]

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Motor Starting via Chokes or Resistors

Reducing the voltage and starting current The series-connected chokes (Figure 1) or resistors (Figure 2) reduce the voltage at the motor and hence also the starting current. The starting torque is reduced by around the square of the current. Starting via chokes At rest the motor impedance is small. Most of the supply voltage drops […]

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Physical Structure & Configuration of DC Machines

Two-pole machine Figure 1 depicts a two-pole machine in which the stator poles are constructed in such a way as to project closer to the rotor than to the stator structure. This type of construction is rather common, and poles constructed in this fashion are called salient poles. Note that the rotor could also be […]

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Few Words About Stepper Motor (Advantages, Disadvantages and Classification)

Introduction A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. The motors rotation has several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. The sequence […]

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