Category Archive for: «Automation»

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PLC implementation of the bottle-filling application

Detection of position In this example (see Figure 1), we will implement a control program that detects the position of a bottle via a limit switch, waits 0.5 seconds, and then fills the bottle until a photosensor detects a filled condition. After the bottle is filled, the control program will wait 0.7 seconds before moving to […]

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Let’s start learning the PLC programming

Introduction For managing and control of the electrical systems there once were used electromechanical relays. In time as tehnology advanced came and PLC devices (Programable Logics Controlers). Also there is the finance aspect since now PLC are cheaper then relays. PLC Components Every PLC is consists from a couple components. Each manufacturer gives his combination […]

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Motor Starting via Chokes or Resistors

Reducing the voltage and starting current The series-connected chokes (Figure 1) or resistors (Figure 2) reduce the voltage at the motor and hence also the starting current. The starting torque is reduced by around the square of the current. Starting via chokes At rest the motor impedance is small. Most of the supply voltage drops […]

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Physical Structure & Configuration of DC Machines

Two-pole machine Figure 1 depicts a two-pole machine in which the stator poles are constructed in such a way as to project closer to the rotor than to the stator structure. This type of construction is rather common, and poles constructed in this fashion are called salient poles. Note that the rotor could also be […]

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Few Words About Stepper Motor (Advantages, Disadvantages and Classification)

Introduction A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. The motors rotation has several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. The sequence […]

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4 Motor Designs Identified In NEMA MG1

It’s all about performance… Performance requirements for various types of induction motors for use on standard sinewave power supplies are identified in NEMA MG1. Some of these types of motors are suitable for use in variable speed applications, dependent on the type of application. The purpose of this section is to provide guidance on the […]

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An Overview Of Control (Ice Cube) Relays

Introduction An electromechanical relay is an electrical switch actuated by an electromagnet coil. As switching devices, they exhibit simple “on” and “off” behavior with no intermediate states. The electronic schematic symbol for a simple single-pole, single-throw (SPST) relay is shown here: A coil of wire wrapped around a laminated iron core provides the magnetic field […]

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Goals and Benefits of the IEC 61131 Standard (PLCs – Programmable Logic Controllers)

PLC Hardware/Programming System The five parts of the standard IEC 61131 summarise the requirements of modern PLC systems. These requirements concern the PLC hardware and the programming system. The standard includes both the common concepts already in use in PLC programming and additional new programming methods. The enormous number of details defined means that programming […]

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Jet pumps used for private well systems or low flow irrigation applications

Typical Jet Pump Installations Jet Pumps are mounted above ground and lift the water out of the ground through a suction pipe. Jets are popular in areas with high water tables and warmer climates. There are two categories of jet pumps and pump selection varies depending on water level. Shallow well installations go down to […]

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7 Most Common Motor Enclosure Types Defined By NEMA Standards

Important role of enclosure The enclosure of the motor must protect the windings, bearings, and other mechanical parts from moisture, chemicals, mechanical damage and abrasion from grit. The 7 most common types of enclosures are: 1. Open Drip Proof (ODP) Allows air to circulate through the windings for cooling, but prevent drops of liquid from falling […]

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