Category Archive for: «Energy and Power»

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6 Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities In Fan Systems

Energy Saving Potential Efficiencies of fan systems vary considerably across impeller types. The average energy saving potential in these systems in the U.S. manufacturing industry is estimated at 6%. For optimal savings and performance, it is recommended that a systems approach is used. In the following, energy saving opportunities for fan systems are presented. Minimizing […]

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Many engineers advocate the use of multiple-transfer switches

Why multiple-transfer switches Automatic transfer switches are primarily used for emergency and standby power generation systems. These transfer switches may incorporate overcurrent protection and are designed and applied in accordance with the NEC, Articles 230, 517, 700, 701,702 and 710, and other applicable standards. To comply with codes and standard requirements for reliability, automatic transfer […]

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4 Low Voltage Switchboard Partitioning Forms Defined By IEC 61439-2

Reasons for partitioning // There are 4 main reasons for partitioning a switchboard. To protect persons against direct contact with dangerous parts. The minimum degree of protection must be IPXXB. To protect the switchboard against the penetration of solid foreign bodies. The minimum degree of protection must be IP2X. To limit the propagation of an electric arc inside the switchboard […]

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11 Major Causes of Power System Failures

Utility Reliability Problems To gain a broader understanding of power system reliability, it is necessary to understand the root causes of system faults and system failures. A description of major failure modes is provided below. Underground Cable Transformer Failures Lightning Tree Contact Birds Squirrels Snakes Insects Bears, Bison, and Cattle Mice, Rats, and Gophers Vandalism […]

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Should We Blame Supplier For Voltage Dips and Transients?

Well, yes and no… Voltage dips and transients are usually blamed on the supplier, but this is often unfair. There are many potential on-site causes; for example, starting of heavy loads may cause voltage dips and switching of inductive loads will generate transients. Let’s talk about how actually voltage dips and transients are created and […]

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Why it’s important to know which type of power factor correction to use

Practical and economical feasibility It’s important to understand where the capacitors are to be installed for a better exploitation of such advantages. There are no general rules applicable to every type of installation and, in theory, capacitors can be installed at any point, but it is necessary to evaluate the relevant practical and economical feasibility. 1. […]

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9 Recommended Practices for Grounding

Basis for safety and power quality Grounding and bonding are the basis upon which safety and power quality are built. The grounding system provides a low-impedance path for fault current and limits the voltage rise on the normally non-current-carrying metallic components of the electrical distribution system. During fault conditions, low impedance results in high fault […]

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Impulse withstand voltage test performed on assemblies

Rated impulse withstand voltage Only optional in the past, the impulse test which allow defining the rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp, is now a necessity thus demonstrating the strategy of the Standards directed to increasing the importance of such performance. In addition to the ordinary temporary overvoltages, usually incoming from the supply line, the plants […]

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6 Recommended Practices for Power Quality

Poor power quality because of… Power quality concerns have traditionally focused on harmonics, which are generated by nonlinear loads, although there are many other concerns regarding isolating sensitive loads from transient disturbances, uneven ground potentials, or phase imbalances. Poor power quality affects the reliable operation of computers and computer-based equipment, which are now ubiquitous, plus standard equipment such as […]

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4 Practical Approaches To Minimize Voltage Drop Problems

What NEC states for max. voltage drop? The NEC states in an Informational Note that a maximum voltage drop of 3% for branch circuit conductors, and 5% for feeder and branch circuit conductors together, will provide reasonable efficiency of operation for general use circuits. For sensitive electronic loads, circuits should be designed for a maximum […]

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