Category Archive for: «Energy and Power»

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8 NEC Basic Feeder Circuit Sizing Requirements

Feeder circuit loads Once the branch circuit loads are calculated, the feeder circuit loads may be calculated by applying demand factors to the branch circuit loads. General Lighting Loads (Article 220.42) Show window or track lighting (Article 220.43) Receptacles in other than dwelling units (Article 220.44) Motors (Article 220.50) Fixed Electric Space Heating (Article 220.51) […]

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Danger And Control Of Static Electricity Buildup

Troubles that you can run into… The following are the dangers posed by static electricity: Ignition causing fire or explosion Damage to sensitive electronic components Electric shock to humans followed by accidents such as a fall Damage to mechanical components such as bearings due to sparking through the oil films on bearing surfaces. It is necessary […]

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Bonding of isolated, common and integrated grounding systems as a means of surge proofing

Clean vs Dirty Ground In this article we covered in detail the physics related to lightning phenomenon and how the surges due to lightning strokes are safely conducted to ground using a lightning protection system consisting of air terminations, down conductors and grounding electrodes. Both these grounding systems are inherently noise prone, since conduction of […]

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Providing capacitive reactive compensation with shunt capacitor banks

Few words about shunt capacitor banks Shunt capacitor banks are mainly installed to provide capacitive reactive compensation – power factor correction. The use of SCBs has increased because they are relatively inexpensive, easy and quick to install and can be deployed virtually anywhere in the network. Its installation has other beneficial effects on the system […]

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Electrical life (durability) of LV circuit breakers due to the switching operations

Test requirements According to the standard IEC 947-2, there is actually no defined stipulation regarding the requirements of electrical life of a circuit breaker. The numbers of switching operations which a circuit breaker under no-load, normal load, overload and short-circuit conditions has to make and/or break are stipulated. These numbers vary between two switchings (O-t-CO) […]

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The Most Typical Indices For Measuring Power Quality Disturbances

Power quality metrics There are various methods for categorizing the severity of power disturbances. The most typical indices for measuring power quality disturbances are listed and explained below: Distortion factor Crest factor Notch area Recovery time Displacement power factor Total power factor K factor 1. Distortion Factor The ratio of the root square value of […]

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An Overview of Wye and Delta Solidly-Grounded Systems

Solidly-grounded Wye System The solidly-grounded system is the most common system arrangement, and one of the most versatile. The most commonly-used configuration is the solidly-grounded wye, because it will support single-phase phase-to neutral loads. The solidly-grounded wye system arrangement can be shown by considering the neutral terminal from the wye system arrangement to be grounded. This […]

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What are the consequences of high harmonic distortion levels?

The plant engineer’s worst fear… Just as high blood pressure can create stress and serious problems in the human body, high levels of harmonic distortion can create stress and resultant problems for the utility’s distribution system and the plant’s distribution system, as well as all of the equipment that is serviced by that distribution system. […]

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Quick estimation of the short-circuit current at the end of a feeder

Rule of thumb for quick estimation If we consider a branch circuit going away from the point of supply and follow it radially along all the connections and branches, we shall find that further away we are from the transformer, lower is the value of the maximum possible short-circuit current. Example of Isc at the […]

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Mineral oil-filled distribution transformer as one of the main part of electrical supply system

Proven Reliability As you already know, this is the most common type of distribution transformer. It is one of the most important part and can be found on electrical supply systems in every country of the world. Although the insulating oil is a flammable liquid, the reliability of the oil-immersed transformer has been proven over […]

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