Category Archive for: «Energy and Power»

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Impulse withstand voltage test performed on assemblies

Rated impulse withstand voltage Only optional in the past, the impulse test which allow defining the rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp, is now a necessity thus demonstrating the strategy of the Standards directed to increasing the importance of such performance. In addition to the ordinary temporary overvoltages, usually incoming from the supply line, the plants […]

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6 Recommended Practices for Power Quality

Poor power quality because of… Power quality concerns have traditionally focused on harmonics, which are generated by nonlinear loads, although there are many other concerns regarding isolating sensitive loads from transient disturbances, uneven ground potentials, or phase imbalances. Poor power quality affects the reliable operation of computers and computer-based equipment, which are now ubiquitous, plus standard equipment such as […]

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4 Practical Approaches To Minimize Voltage Drop Problems

What NEC states for max. voltage drop? The NEC states in an Informational Note that a maximum voltage drop of 3% for branch circuit conductors, and 5% for feeder and branch circuit conductors together, will provide reasonable efficiency of operation for general use circuits. For sensitive electronic loads, circuits should be designed for a maximum […]

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Smart Load Management Strategies To Save Energy

How utilities understand the loads… As part of their drive towards synchronizing the consumption and production of electrical energy over the long term, energy distribution companies tailor their rates to encourage consumers to reduce their requirements during peak periods. A number of different strategies are possible, depending on consumption levels and operating requirements: restricting demand […]

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How can I select the right capacitors for my specific application needs?

Power factor correction Once you’ve decided that your facility can benefit from power factor correction, you’ll need to choose the optimum type, size, and number of capacitors for your plant. Individual vs. banked installations 7 advantages of individual capacitors at the load: Complete control // Capacitors cannot cause problems on the line during light load conditions […]

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A real life analogy of the jurisdiction of the protection relay

To Protect the Transmission Line Under Fault Formally, a relay is a logical element which processes the inputs (mostly voltages and currents) from the system/apparatus and issues a trip decision if a fault within the protection relay‘s jurisdiction is detected. A conceptual diagram of relay is shown in Figure 1 below. Let’s see an example […]

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Emergency Lighting Power Supply in Data Center

When standard lighting fails… Lighting is defined as emergency lighting when it is intended for operation when standard lighting fails. Emergency lighting must be powered by an independent energy source (typically a central power supply system) and is classified by the UNI EN 1838 standard into: Back-up lighting Safety lighting While safety lighting is governed by […]

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Voltage Imbalance Protection of Synchronous Generator (ANSI Code 60)

Synchronous Generator Protection In an apparatus protection perspective, generators constitute a special class of power network equipment because faults are very rare, but can be highly destructive and therefore very costly when they occur. If for most utilities, generation integrity must be preserved by avoiding erroneous tripping, removing a generator in case of a serious […]

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Calculating Max. Demand Kilovolt-Amperes and Required Cable Current Rating

A building site and electrical equipment A building site is to have the following electrical equipment available for use: Tower crane, electric motors totalling 75 kW at 415 V; Sump pump, 5 kW at 240 V; 60 tungsten lamps of 100 W each at 240 V; 12 flood lamps of 400 W each at 240 […]

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Important Generator Set Rating Considerations

Rating Definitions A generator set (genset) consists of an engine and a generator. However, it is best to consider the engine and generator as a system. Individually, each has unique characteristics; but together these qualities have a significant impact on the performance and sizing of the genset system. Capabilities of both engine and generator are considered individually and […]

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