Category Archive for: «Energy and Power»

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10 Most Common Power Disturbances That Make Our Life Difficult

Power Quality Issue As you know, deviation from sinusoidal form at the nominal voltage level is actually a power quality issue or power disturbance, defined as “any deviation from the nominal value (or from some selected thresholds based upon tolerance) of the AC input power characteristics”. Power disturbances can greatly affect utilization equipment. For example, […]

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The choice of system voltage according to ANSI standard C84.1

Power system design The selection of system voltages is crucial to successful power system design. Reference lists the standard voltages for the United States and their ranges. The nominal voltages are given in Table 1 below. As can be seen, ANSI C84.1-1989 divides system voltages into “voltage classes”. The choice of service voltage is limited to […]

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5 Most Common Critical Power Distribution Topologies

Today’s mission-critical applications In many of today’s mission-critical applications, ever-increasing reliability requirements are the norm. A critical part of this reliability is the reliability of the electric power distribution system for a given facility. Among the most demanding applications is that of a data center, where the enduse equipment cannot tolerate even a momentary power […]

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Methods Of Securing LV Circuit Breakers

Methods Circuit breakers are typically secured in place by one of the following methods: Through bolts Bolted to the bus Stab locked to the bus or some type of receptacle connection Din rail mounted Bolted Type Breakers When a longer service life breaker is wanted, a bolted type is typically used. These types have a […]

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Methods Of Mounting LV Circuit Breakers

Three general groups Methods used to mount circuit breakers can be divided into three general groups, those being: Fixed Removable (disconnectable unit), and Drawout (withdrawable) A review of these mounting methods follows. Fixed Mounted Circuit Breakers A circuit breaker that is bolted in its enclosure and wired to the load frame, we can call a […]

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7 Most Known High Voltage Insulation Methods

Homogeneous characteristics Before getting to the specifics of each material, there are a couple of issues that apply to all materials. First, it is important that the insulating material is homogeneous. This is to ensure that the dielectric constant is the same throughout so that the electric field strength gradient is as constant as practical. […]

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How to get rid off the harmonics in electrical system?

Nothing good from harmonics… The subject of harmonics is also a contributory factor in electrical noise I already wrote few days ago (Cable spacing as a means of noise mitigation). It also causes several other problems in power circuit components such as motors, transformers and capacitor banks. A load that is purely resistive has the same wave […]

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Cable spacing as a means of noise mitigation

Separation distances In situations where there are a large number of cables varying in voltage and current levels, the IEEE 518-1982 standard has developed a useful set of tables indicating separation distances for the various classes of cables. There are four classification levels of susceptibility for cables. Susceptibility, in this context, is understood to be […]

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Harmonic Distortion and High Frequency Applications

Distortion of the fundamental sine wave The presence of harmonic frequencies in addition to the fundamental 50Hz, bring about distortion of the fundamental sine wave. Considerable problems may arise dependant upon the level of this distortion. Sources of harmonic distortion can be: Variable Speed Drives UPS equipment Non linear load (switch mode power supplies) Special […]

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How the Weather Affects Conductors

Sag Notice how a conductor is strung between poles. It is not pulled tight; it sags. In hot weather it sags even more than in cold weather. Consider the analogy of the clothesline. A tightly strung clothesline as shown in Figure 1a puts a much greater strain on the poles which hold it at either […]

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