Category Archive for: «Energy and Power»

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An Overview of Wye and Delta Solidly-Grounded Systems

Solidly-grounded Wye System The solidly-grounded system is the most common system arrangement, and one of the most versatile. The most commonly-used configuration is the solidly-grounded wye, because it will support single-phase phase-to neutral loads. The solidly-grounded wye system arrangement can be shown by considering the neutral terminal from the wye system arrangement to be grounded. This […]

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What are the consequences of high harmonic distortion levels?

The plant engineer’s worst fear… Just as high blood pressure can create stress and serious problems in the human body, high levels of harmonic distortion can create stress and resultant problems for the utility’s distribution system and the plant’s distribution system, as well as all of the equipment that is serviced by that distribution system. […]

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Quick estimation of the short-circuit current at the end of a feeder

Rule of thumb for quick estimation If we consider a branch circuit going away from the point of supply and follow it radially along all the connections and branches, we shall find that further away we are from the transformer, lower is the value of the maximum possible short-circuit current. Example of Isc at the […]

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Mineral oil-filled distribution transformer as one of the main part of electrical supply system

Proven Reliability As you already know, this is the most common type of distribution transformer. It is one of the most important part and can be found on electrical supply systems in every country of the world. Although the insulating oil is a flammable liquid, the reliability of the oil-immersed transformer has been proven over […]

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When customer complains on equipment failure caused by overvoltage…

Customer explanations… While voltage sags and momentary interruptions cause the most widespread power quality problems, several other power quality disturbances can damage equipment, overheat equipment, disrupt processes, cause data loss, and annoy and upset customers. Often, customers complain of equipment failures, especially following power interruptions. Is it lightning? Voltage swells during faults? Some sort of […]

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Characteristics of XLPE insulated cables with reference to the UK standards

Cross-linking effect XLPE is the recognized abbreviation for cross-linked polyethylene. This and other cross-linked synthetic materials, of which EPR (ethylene propylene rubber) is a notable example, are being increasingly used as cable insulants for a wide range of voltages. Polyethylene has good electrical properties and in particular a low dielectric loss factor, which gives it […]

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34 Questions And Answers To Break the Myth About SF6 Gas In Electrical Equipment

Miracle gas or not? There are many published discussions and reports on various aspects of  SF6 gas (sulphur hexafluoride) usage in electrical equipment. Most of them are based on facts and researches, but some are not. Let’s try to answer the 34 questions and break the myth about this ‘miracle’ gas. Note that most of […]

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Impact Of Voltage Regulation On Power System Stability

Voltage Tolerance Ranges Voltage regulation, by definition, is the percentage change in secondary voltage from no-load to full-load conditions. The regulation is customarily specified at a specific power factor, as the power factor of the load affects the voltage regulation of the device or circuit. The operating voltage range will, however, change and affect the […]

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Line Harmonic Currents – Adjustable Frequency Control Created

Nonlinear loads Nonlinear loads like adjustable frequency controls create line harmonics when connected to the AC power distribution system. These harmonic currents are a result of non-sinusoidal current, which is a characteristic of all adjustable frequency controls using diodes or silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) on the input. The control’s input current is composed of the fundamental sinusoidal current […]

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4 Essential Qualities Of Electrical Protection

Fundamental Protection Requirements In generating stations, all electrical circuits and machines are subject to faults. A fault is generally caused by the breakdown of insulation between a conductor and ground or between conductors due to a variety of reasons. The result is a flow of excess current through a relatively low resistance resulting in severe […]

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