Category Archive for: «Energy and Power»

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8 steps to begin basic circuit design

How do we begin to design? What do we need to know? Clearly, plunging into calculations of cable size is of little value unless the type of cable and its method of installation is known. This, in turn, will depend on the installation’s environment. At the same time, we would need to know whether the […]

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Which type of residual current device (RCD) to use and when?

Total earth loop impedance We know how (very) important the total earth loop impedance Zs is in the reduction of shock risk. However, in TT systems where the mass of earth is part of the fault path, the maximum values of Zs given in the IEE Regulations may be hard to satisfy. Added to this, […]

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Electromagnetic Stresses On Busbar System

Introduction When a conductor carries a current it creates a magnetic field which interacts with any other magnetic field present to produce a force. When the currents flowing in two adjacent conductors are in the same direction the force is one of attraction, and when the currents are in opposite directions a repulsive force is […]

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Electrical Design Project of a Three Bed Room House (Part 2)

Continued from 1st part: Electrical Design Project of a Three Bed Room House (Part 1) Building regulations Smoke detectors All new domestic dwellings, including conversions, must either have: A fire detection and fire alarm system in accordance with the relevant recommendations of British Standard BS 5839-6 system; or Mains operated smoke alarms, with at least […]

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Enclosure protection against ingress of solid objects and liquids

Enclosure protection (IP) code As you already probably know, IP stands for Ingress Protection. International Electrotechnical Commission – IEC 60529 “Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).”. NEMA offers a similar rating system. In order to protect live parts of equipment being contacted by foreign solid bodies or liquid, and also to prevent persons […]

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Underfloor Cable Systems

Power distribution It should be understood that the generic term ‘underfloor’ applies to products designed for such use but which may well be used in other environments where the protection is appropriate. There are two main types of such systems: Those designed for incorporation into the floor structure itself, such as trunking systems for casting […]

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Electrical Design Project of a Three Bed Room House (Part 1)

Requirements and Standards Electrical design is not an easy task. It requires a lot of expertise. Detailed study is needed prior to installation work. The engineer must consider quality and any specific requirements together with price. Different options are to be examined. Choice of room utilization, decor, hobbies and the activities of the various residents are […]

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Electrical Thumb Rules You MUST Follow (Part 8)

Continued from part 7: Electrical Thumb Rules You MUST Follow (Part 7) Three EE thumb rules to follow: Accuracy Class of Metering CT Accuracy Class Letter of CT Accuracy Class of Protection CT Accuracy Class of Metering CT Metering Class CT Class Applications 0.1 To 0.2 Precision measurements 0.5 High grade kilowatt hour meters for […]

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Peak Value of Deadly Lightning Current

Lightning Discharge Lightning currents are load-independent currents, i.e. a lightning discharge can be considered an almost ideal current source. If a load-independent active electric current flows through conductive components, the amplitude of the current, and the impedance of the conductive component the current flows through, help to regulate the potential drop across the component flown through by […]

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Total Losses in Power Distribution and Transmission Lines (2)

Continued from first part: Total Losses in Power Distribution & Transmission Lines (1) There are two types of transmission and distribution losses: Technical losses (explained in previous part) Non-technical losses (commercial losses) 2. Non-technical (commercial losses) Non-technical losses are at 16.6%, and related to meter reading, defective meter and error in meter reading, billing of […]

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