Category Archive for: «Power Substation»

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Microprocessor and conventional secondary systems compared

Reliable operation of the primary system Secondary systems are all those facilities needed to ensure reliable operation of the primary system, e.g. a high voltage substation. They cover the functions of controlling, interlocking, signalling and monitoring, measuring, counting, recording and protecting. With conventional secondary systems, the various functions are performed by separate devices (discrete components) […]

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Arriving at the scene of a power substation fire. What to do?

To contact utility personel Power substations contain transformers, large quantities of oil, energized electrical equipment and, in some cases, cylinders of compressed gas. Some of the oil may contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On arriving at a substation fire, normally you should first call for firefighters and they should hook up and stand ready to protect […]

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Why is Continuous On-line Monitoring of Partial Discharge in the Switchgear Necessary?

What’s the condition of your switchgear? Not sure? You know that periodical maintenance test like partial discharge test can still leave switchgear in virtually unknown condition. Insulation defects and deterioration may very well develop in service within maintenance cycle. These defects are often not detectable with traditional off-line tests and yet, traditionally, on-line or off-line […]

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Location of Current Transformers in HV Substation

Power flow Current transformers are used for protection, instrumentation, metering and control. It is only the first function that has any bearing on the location of the current transformer. In many circuits the power flow can be in either direction and it then becomes necessary to decide which location of fault is most important or likely and to […]

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6 Simple Rules to Ensure Substation Safety

Importance of safety protection Another extremely important substation engineering aspect is associated with safety protection. It is fair to say that safety is always a No. 1 priority in substation design, operation and maintenance. Unlike the case where a higher reliability required a larger investment, we can’t put a price tag on safety since there […]

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Example of standard MV/LV network structure

Network structure: Example network above consists of: MV consumer substation; Two MV ratings: 20 kV and 6 kV; The main MV switchboard fed at 20 kV can be backed up by a set of four generators. It feeds: An MV 20 kV network in a loop system comprising three secondary switchboards MV4, MV5 and MV6; […]

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What’s That Hissing, Cracking, Buzzing Noise?

Corona or Partial Discharge with Buzzing Noise Corona can be visible in the form of light, typically a purple glow, as corona generally consists of micro arcs. Darkening the environment can help to visualize the corona. We once attached a camera (set to a long exposure time) to a viewing window in a vacuum chamber […]

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Dry-Type Transformer Installation and Ventilation Requirements

Installation Dry-type transformers should be installed over foundations that are properly leveled and capable to withstand their weight. When a transformer is fitted with wheels, make sure the equipment will be equally supported on its base points in order to assure its stability and to prevent any deformation. When installing the transformer, the following factors […]

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Natural Ventilation Of Power Substation

Thermal Effects In Substation The operation of a system of natural ventilation is as a result of a decrease in air density as its temperature is raised due to the heat gain from various sources. Because the pressure differential developed is relatively small, ventilation louvers and grilles, etc, need to be of a design that […]

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An Overview Of Grounding System (Grounded)

Continued from technical article: An Overview Of Grounding System (Ungrounded) Topics covered Solidly grounded system Resistance grounded system Reason for resistance grounding System earthing at EHV level Solidly grounded system Let us assume that R phase (Phase-3 in figure-3) is shorted to ground than: If = Current through shorted path (Fault current) In = Current […]

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