Category Archive for: «Power Substation»

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5 conditions for perfect parallel operation of single phase transformers

Parallel operation of transformers // In perfect parallel operation of two or more transformers, current in each transformer would be directly proportional to the transformer capacity, and the arithmetic sum would equal one-half the total current. However, there are 5 conditions for operating transformers in parallel and they are: Any combination of positive and negative […]

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Underground substations – Out of sight, out of mind

Underground substations // Underground substations help to bring high voltage electricity directly into the city center. The stations are environmentally friendly, almost unnoticeable, and have none of the planning problems encountered by surface-built solutions. Building new transformer substations in inner-city zones or expanding existing facilities is a challenging remit: Due to the lack of acceptance […]

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Electrical Distribution Architecture In Water Treatment Plants

Water treatment plants For both drinking water and wastewater treatment, 4 different sizes of plants have been distinguished. The size of plants can be expressed in quantity of treated water per day, or in corresponding number of inhabitants. Four different types of (waste) water treatment plants have been distinguished, depending on destination and size: T1 – […]

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5 good circuit schemes to avoid HV substation outage

Circuit schemes High voltage substations are points in the power system where power can be pooled from generating sources, distributed and transformed, and delivered to the load points. Substations are interconnected with each other, so that the power system becomes a meshed network. This increases reliability of the power supply system by providing alternate paths for […]

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The good ventilation of switchgear and transformer rooms

Design criteria for room ventilation // In order to design a good ventilation of switchgear and transformer rooms, the air in the room must meet various requirements. The most important is not to exceed the permissible maximum temperature. Limit values for humidity and air quality, e.g. dust content, may also be set. Switchboards and gas-insulated switchgear […]

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Basics Of Primary Medium Voltage Switchgear

Primary medium voltage switchgear Primary medium voltage switchgear represents an important part within the primary distribution substation functionality. The switchgear works as a connection node between the outgoing distribution feeders and the in-feeding power transformers. The most common construction with the switchgear is an indoor-mounted metal-enclosed one. The rated voltage, current and short circuit withstand […]

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Hardware Implementation of Substation Control and Automation

Substation control system // To form a substation control system, the various elements described above must be assembled into some form of topology. Three major hardware topologies can be identified as being commonly used, as follows: HMI based Topology RTU based Topology Decentralised Topology HMI based Topology This takes the form of Figure 1. The software to implement the […]

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Balancing of single-phase loads to achieve energy efficiency

Single-phase loads distribution // All single-phase loads, especially those with non-linear characteristics, in an electrical installation with a three-phase supply should be evenly and reasonably distributed among the phases. Such provisions are required to be demonstrated in the design for all three-phase 4-wire circuits exceeding 100A with single-phase loads. The maximum unbalanced single-phase loads distribution, […]

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6 Voltages a Person Can Be Exposed To In a Substation

Dangerous voltages in substation // Figures 1 and 2 show the voltages a person can be exposed to in a substation. The following definitions describe the voltages // Ground potential rise (GPR) Mesh voltage Metal-to-metal touch voltage Step voltage Touch voltage Transfer red voltage 1. Ground potential rise (GPR) The maximum electrical potential that a […]

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Basics Of Distribution Substations For Electrical Engineers (Beginners)

Distribution substations purpose // Distribution substations serve a wide range of private and public customers in distributing electric power. They can be shareholder, cooperatively, privately, and government owned. All substations contain power transformers and the voltage-regulating apparatus required for converting the high incoming sub-transmission voltages to lower primary system voltages and maintaining them within specified […]

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