Category Archive for: «Power Substation»

3 Designs of DC Distribution Systems In Power Substations

DC Distribution Systems The method of connection of the battery, battery charger, and DC distribution systems depends on the duty, the type or load, and whether the system needs to be duplicated or whether duplicate chargers are required. One typical example for a 125 V system is shown in figure 1 below. In this example, an […]

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10 Factors To Consider When Specifying Transformers

Guidelines to specifying transformers The following ten factors MUST be considered when specifying transformers // Kilovoltampere (kVA) Rating Voltage Ratings, Ratio, and Method of Connection (Delta or Wye) Voltage Taps Typical Impedance Values for Power Transformers Insulation Temperature Ratings Insulation Classes Sound Levels Effects of Transformer Failures Harmonic Content of Load Paralleling transformers 1. Kilovoltampere (kVA) […]

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Matching transformers for parallel operation

3 rules for parallel transformers // The following rules must be obeyed in order to successfully connect two or more transformers in parallel with each other: The turns ratios of all of the transformers must be nearly equal. The phase angle displacements of all of the transformers must be identical. The series impedances of all […]

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Practical Considerations of LV/MV Private Substations

Private substations Private substations can often be considered as terminal type substations, i.e. substations where the MV line ends at the point of installation of the substation itself. They belong to the user and can supply both civil users (schools, hospitals, etc.) with power and industrial users with supply from the public MV grid. These […]

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How to determine the best location for earth electrode

Low-resistance earth electrode and soil A good, low-resistance earth electrode depends upon a low-resistivity soil in a spot where you can drive in your electrodes. There are two approaches to picking your location: Drive rods in various locations to such depths as may be required and test their resistances while they are being driven. Measure the […]

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5 conditions for perfect parallel operation of single phase transformers

Parallel operation of transformers // In perfect parallel operation of two or more transformers, current in each transformer would be directly proportional to the transformer capacity, and the arithmetic sum would equal one-half the total current. However, there are 5 conditions for operating transformers in parallel and they are: Any combination of positive and negative […]

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Underground substations – Out of sight, out of mind

Underground substations // Underground substations help to bring high voltage electricity directly into the city center. The stations are environmentally friendly, almost unnoticeable, and have none of the planning problems encountered by surface-built solutions. Building new transformer substations in inner-city zones or expanding existing facilities is a challenging remit: Due to the lack of acceptance […]

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Electrical Distribution Architecture In Water Treatment Plants

Water treatment plants For both drinking water and wastewater treatment, 4 different sizes of plants have been distinguished. The size of plants can be expressed in quantity of treated water per day, or in corresponding number of inhabitants. Four different types of (waste) water treatment plants have been distinguished, depending on destination and size: T1 – […]

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5 good circuit schemes to avoid HV substation outage

Circuit schemes High voltage substations are points in the power system where power can be pooled from generating sources, distributed and transformed, and delivered to the load points. Substations are interconnected with each other, so that the power system becomes a meshed network. This increases reliability of the power supply system by providing alternate paths for […]

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The good ventilation of switchgear and transformer rooms

Design criteria for room ventilation // In order to design a good ventilation of switchgear and transformer rooms, the air in the room must meet various requirements. The most important is not to exceed the permissible maximum temperature. Limit values for humidity and air quality, e.g. dust content, may also be set. Switchboards and gas-insulated switchgear […]

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