Category Archive for: «Protection»

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How to get rid off the harmonics in electrical system?

Nothing good from harmonics… The subject of harmonics is also a contributory factor in electrical noise I already wrote few days ago (Cable spacing as a means of noise mitigation). It also causes several other problems in power circuit components such as motors, transformers and capacitor banks. A load that is purely resistive has the same wave […]

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Microprocessor and conventional secondary systems compared

Reliable operation of the primary system Secondary systems are all those facilities needed to ensure reliable operation of the primary system, e.g. a high voltage substation. They cover the functions of controlling, interlocking, signalling and monitoring, measuring, counting, recording and protecting. With conventional secondary systems, the various functions are performed by separate devices (discrete components) […]

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Protection Against Overexcitation Of a Transformer

Increase of the magnetizing current Overexcitation of a transformer means that the magnetic flux in the core is increased above the normal design level. This will cause an increase of the magnetizing current and the transformer can be damaged if this situation isn’t taken care of. For step-up transformers connected to generators during start-up, overexcitation […]

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Differences between disconnectors, load switches, switch disconnectors and circuit breakers

Device Types Various types of device are available for carrying out the switching and protection tasks listed under title that are specially designed to fulfill the respective requirements. The various parts of IEC 60947 (Low voltage switchgear and controlgear) specify the design, performance and test features of the devices. The most important features of the […]

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How to mitigate effects of very fast transients (VFT) on HV equipment

VFT overvoltages The level reached by very fast transients (VFT) overvoltages originated by disconnector switching or line-to-ground faults inside a gas insulated switchgear (GIS) are below the basic insulation level (BIL) of substation and external equipment. However, aging of the insulation of external equipment due to frequent VFT must be considered. Transient enclosure voltages (TEV) […]

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6 Factors Influencing Requirements for a Good Grounding System

Six Requirements To Consider In an industrial plant or other facility that requires a grounding system, one or more of the following must be carefully considered (refer to Figure 1 below): 1. Limiting Voltage Limiting to definite values the voltage to earth of the entire electrical system. Use of a suitable grounding system can do […]

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Which type of residual current device (RCD) to use and when?

Total earth loop impedance We know how (very) important the total earth loop impedance Zs is in the reduction of shock risk. However, in TT systems where the mass of earth is part of the fault path, the maximum values of Zs given in the IEE Regulations may be hard to satisfy. Added to this, […]

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Erection Procedures of Earthing Arrangements (TNC, TN-S, TNC-S and TT)

Earthing of low voltage networks The earthing of low voltage networks in the UK is largely determined by the Low Voltage Supplies. However, if the incoming supplies are at 11kV and the transformers are in the ownership of the user, the LV supplies may be earthed in a less conventional way using a high impedance. […]

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Practical calculations of lightning strikes frequency

Frequency of lightning strikes We distinguish between the following frequencies of lightning strikes which can be relevant for a building or structure: ND – Frequency of direct lightning strikes to the building or structure;· NM – Frequency of close lightning strikes with electromagnetic effects; NL – Frequency of direct lightning strikes in utility lines entering […]

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What’s Really Important When You’re Designing The Low Voltage Switchgear?

Requirements on the Switchgear Here what’s important when you’re designing the low voltage switchgear: Device Application in the Supply Circuit Short-circuit strength Release (Trip Unit) Device Application in Supply Circuits (Coupling) Device Application in the Distribution Circuit Device Application in the Final Circuit 1. Device Application in the Supply Circuit The system infeed is the […]

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