Category Archive for: «Transmission and Distribution»

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Setting the generator protective relay functions

Protective relay functions and data This technical article will cover the gathering of information needed to calculate protective relay settings, the setting calculations for the various protective functions, typical generator/turbine withstand times for abnormal operating conditions, and the math associated with various types of impedance elements. Figures 1, 2, and 3 provide examples of organizing and […]

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Single-line diagram of the AC transmission and distribution system

Transmission and distribution // The conductor system by means of which electric power is conveyed from a generating station to the consumer’s premises may, in general, be divided into two distinct parts i.e. Transmission system and Distribution system Each part can again be sub-divided into two: primary transmission and secondary transmission and similarly, primary distribution and […]

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Secondary Distribution Networks In Urban Areas

Secondary Distribution // A high level of interconnection, either ring or mesh, to ensure a high degree of availability of supply to the consumer, characterises secondary distribution networks in urban areas. Domestic, industrial and commercial consumers will suffer great inconvenience through only a relatively short loss in supply of only a few hours, with business likely […]

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Phases and wires in distribution of AC power

Distribution of AC power // AC power transmission is always at high voltage and mostly by 3-phase system. The use of single-phase system is limited to single-phase electric railways. Single-phase power transmission is used only for short distances and for relatively low voltages. By the way, did you know that 3-phase power transmission requires less […]

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9 Basic Dimensioning Rules For All Circuits

Dimensioning & network calculation // Basically, the dimensioning process itself is easy to understand and can be performed using simple means. Its complexity lies in the procurement of the technical data on products and systems, which can be found in various technical standards and regulations on the one hand and numerous product catalogues on the other. […]

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7 Methods To Avoid Insulator Flashovers

Transmission Line Insulator Flashovers Contamination caused insulator flashovers produce frequent outages in severely contaminated areas. Lines closer to the ocean are in more danger of becoming contaminated. Several countermeasures have been proposed to improve insulator performance. The most frequently used methods are: Increasing leakage distance Semiconducting glaze Periodic washing Periodic cleaning Replacement Covering with silicon […]

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Basics Of Distribution Substations For Electrical Engineers (Beginners)

Distribution substations purpose // Distribution substations serve a wide range of private and public customers in distributing electric power. They can be shareholder, cooperatively, privately, and government owned. All substations contain power transformers and the voltage-regulating apparatus required for converting the high incoming sub-transmission voltages to lower primary system voltages and maintaining them within specified […]

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FACTS Devices To Enhance Power System Performance

The FACTS // Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) simply refers to a combination of power electronics components with traditional power system components. They are intended to improve our power system reliability, power transfer capability, transient and dynamic stability improvements, voltage regulation etc… With the advent of improved semiconductor technologies, […]

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Basic Stand-Alone Application of Reclosers

Overcurrent protection Reclosers are self-contained fault interrupting and reclosing devices, specifically designed for overcurrent protection in secondary distribution systems. Reclosers are situated in selected locations within the overhead distribution network. With the correct protection setting and MV fuse selection coordination, concerning the whole supply loop from the supplying primary distribution substation feeder to the fuse-protected […]

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Configurations and Characteristics Of Distribution Substations

Small, medium, and large substations Distribution substations come in many sizes and configurations. A small rural substation may have a nominal rating of 5 MVA while an urban station may be over 200 MVA. Figures 1 through 3 show examples of small, medium, and large substations. As much as possible, many utilities have standardized substation […]

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