Category Archive for: «Transmission and Distribution»

Main substations installed on public MV network

Substations in public distribution systems This technical article is a reminder of the main substations installed on MV networks. It is concluded by two layouts showing their applications in real terms. A substation or installation is a physical entity defined by its position and its function within electrical networks. Let’s discuss now about the four public […]

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Underground residential distribution – More hidden and more reliable

Underground residential distribution / URD A classic underground residential distribution circuit is an underground circuit in a loop arrangement fed at each end from an overhead circuit (see Figure 1). The loop arrangement allows utilities to restore customers more quickly. After crews find the faulted section, they can reconfigure the loop and isolate any failed […]

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Setting the generator protective relay functions

Protective relay functions and data This technical article will cover the gathering of information needed to calculate protective relay settings, the setting calculations for the various protective functions, typical generator/turbine withstand times for abnormal operating conditions, and the math associated with various types of impedance elements. Figures 1, 2, and 3 provide examples of organizing and […]

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Single-line diagram of the AC transmission and distribution system

Transmission and distribution // The conductor system by means of which electric power is conveyed from a generating station to the consumer’s premises may, in general, be divided into two distinct parts i.e. Transmission system and Distribution system Each part can again be sub-divided into two: primary transmission and secondary transmission and similarly, primary distribution and […]

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Secondary Distribution Networks In Urban Areas

Secondary Distribution // A high level of interconnection, either ring or mesh, to ensure a high degree of availability of supply to the consumer, characterises secondary distribution networks in urban areas. Domestic, industrial and commercial consumers will suffer great inconvenience through only a relatively short loss in supply of only a few hours, with business likely […]

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Phases and wires in distribution of AC power

Distribution of AC power // AC power transmission is always at high voltage and mostly by 3-phase system. The use of single-phase system is limited to single-phase electric railways. Single-phase power transmission is used only for short distances and for relatively low voltages. By the way, did you know that 3-phase power transmission requires less […]

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9 Basic Dimensioning Rules For All Circuits

Dimensioning & network calculation // Basically, the dimensioning process itself is easy to understand and can be performed using simple means. Its complexity lies in the procurement of the technical data on products and systems, which can be found in various technical standards and regulations on the one hand and numerous product catalogues on the other. […]

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7 Methods To Avoid Insulator Flashovers

Transmission Line Insulator Flashovers Contamination caused insulator flashovers produce frequent outages in severely contaminated areas. Lines closer to the ocean are in more danger of becoming contaminated. Several countermeasures have been proposed to improve insulator performance. The most frequently used methods are: Increasing leakage distance Semiconducting glaze Periodic washing Periodic cleaning Replacement Covering with silicon […]

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Basics Of Distribution Substations For Electrical Engineers (Beginners)

Distribution substations purpose // Distribution substations serve a wide range of private and public customers in distributing electric power. They can be shareholder, cooperatively, privately, and government owned. All substations contain power transformers and the voltage-regulating apparatus required for converting the high incoming sub-transmission voltages to lower primary system voltages and maintaining them within specified […]

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FACTS Devices To Enhance Power System Performance

The FACTS // Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) simply refers to a combination of power electronics components with traditional power system components. They are intended to improve our power system reliability, power transfer capability, transient and dynamic stability improvements, voltage regulation etc… With the advent of improved semiconductor technologies, […]

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