Category Archive for: «Transmission and Distribution»

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Basic Stand-Alone Application of Reclosers

Overcurrent protection Reclosers are self-contained fault interrupting and reclosing devices, specifically designed for overcurrent protection in secondary distribution systems. Reclosers are situated in selected locations within the overhead distribution network. With the correct protection setting and MV fuse selection coordination, concerning the whole supply loop from the supplying primary distribution substation feeder to the fuse-protected […]

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Configurations and Characteristics Of Distribution Substations

Small, medium, and large substations Distribution substations come in many sizes and configurations. A small rural substation may have a nominal rating of 5 MVA while an urban station may be over 200 MVA. Figures 1 through 3 show examples of small, medium, and large substations. As much as possible, many utilities have standardized substation […]

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Network Distribution Transformers – Serving Grid and Spot Networks

Housed in vaults Network transformers, the distribution transformers that serve grid and spot networks, are large three-phase units. Network units are normally vault-types or subway types, which are defined as (ANSI C57.12.40-1982): Vault-type transformers // Suitable for occasional submerged operation Subway-type transformers // Suitable for frequent or continuous sub-merged operation Network transformers are often housed in vaults. Vaults […]

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Important Primary Distribution (Radial and Loop) System Considerations

Primary (distribution) feeders // The primary distribution system is that part of the electric distribution system between the distribution substation and distribution transformers. It is made up of circuits called primary feeders or distribution feeders. These feeders include the primary feeder main or main feeder, usually a three-phase, four-wire circuit, and branches or laterals, which […]

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11 Major Causes of Power System Failures

Utility Reliability Problems To gain a broader understanding of power system reliability, it is necessary to understand the root causes of system faults and system failures. A description of major failure modes is provided below. Underground Cable Transformer Failures Lightning Tree Contact Birds Squirrels Snakes Insects Bears, Bison, and Cattle Mice, Rats, and Gophers Vandalism […]

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Smart Load Management Strategies To Save Energy

How utilities understand the loads… As part of their drive towards synchronizing the consumption and production of electrical energy over the long term, energy distribution companies tailor their rates to encourage consumers to reduce their requirements during peak periods. A number of different strategies are possible, depending on consumption levels and operating requirements: restricting demand […]

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Selection of HV Conductors And Earth Wires

Aluminium ACSR Conductors Conductors represent the most important component of an overhead power line because they have to ensure economical and reliable transmission and contribute considerably to the total line costs. However, aluminum is a very corrosive metal. But a dense oxide layer is formed that stops further corrosive attacks. Therefore, up to a certain […]

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HVDC VSC Technology For Offshore Wind Farm Applications

Offshore Wind Farms The demand for the power is increasing day by day. The only one solution for this is to use the renewable sources of energy like wind, solar, water etc. Among this wind can produce major amount of power. Since the wind farm requires a lot of space and adequate amount of wind, […]

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8 Major Advantages of Distribution Automation

Economic Challenges More and more electric utilities are looking to distribution automation as an answer to the three main economic challenges facing the industry: The rising cost of adding generating capacity, Increased saturation of existing distribution networks and Greater sensitivity to customer service.[/info_box] These benefits accumulate in areas that are related to investments, interruptions and […]

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Analysing the costs of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission

Topics discussed Introduction to HVDC Cost structure of HVDC Assumptions made in the price calculations Thyristor based HVDC system versus high voltage AC system VSC based HVDC system versus an AC system or a local generation source Comparative cost information Let’s start with introduction! It specifies a system used for transmitting or exchanging electrical power […]

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