Category Archive for: «Transmission and Distribution»

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11 Major Causes of Power System Failures

Utility Reliability Problems To gain a broader understanding of power system reliability, it is necessary to understand the root causes of system faults and system failures. A description of major failure modes is provided below. Underground Cable Transformer Failures Lightning Tree Contact Birds Squirrels Snakes Insects Bears, Bison, and Cattle Mice, Rats, and Gophers Vandalism […]

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Smart Load Management Strategies To Save Energy

How utilities understand the loads… As part of their drive towards synchronizing the consumption and production of electrical energy over the long term, energy distribution companies tailor their rates to encourage consumers to reduce their requirements during peak periods. A number of different strategies are possible, depending on consumption levels and operating requirements: restricting demand […]

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Selection of HV Conductors And Earth Wires

Aluminium ACSR Conductors Conductors represent the most important component of an overhead power line because they have to ensure economical and reliable transmission and contribute considerably to the total line costs. However, aluminum is a very corrosive metal. But a dense oxide layer is formed that stops further corrosive attacks. Therefore, up to a certain […]

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HVDC VSC Technology For Offshore Wind Farm Applications

Offshore Wind Farms The demand for the power is increasing day by day. The only one solution for this is to use the renewable sources of energy like wind, solar, water etc. Among this wind can produce major amount of power. Since the wind farm requires a lot of space and adequate amount of wind, […]

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8 Major Advantages of Distribution Automation

Economic Challenges More and more electric utilities are looking to distribution automation as an answer to the three main economic challenges facing the industry: The rising cost of adding generating capacity, Increased saturation of existing distribution networks and Greater sensitivity to customer service.[/info_box] These benefits accumulate in areas that are related to investments, interruptions and […]

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Analysing the costs of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission

Topics discussed Introduction to HVDC Cost structure of HVDC Assumptions made in the price calculations Thyristor based HVDC system versus high voltage AC system VSC based HVDC system versus an AC system or a local generation source Comparative cost information Let’s start with introduction! It specifies a system used for transmitting or exchanging electrical power […]

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Site selection considerations for the future power substation

Final location of the facility At this stage, a footprint of the future power substation should be developed, including the layout of the major equipment. A decision on the final location of the facility can now be made and various options can be evaluated. Final grades, roadways, storm water retention, and environmental issues are addressed at […]

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An Example of Choosing 138 kV Line Circuit Breaker

Let’s choose 138 kV line #3 circuit breaker To better understand a process of high voltage equipment selection, let’s discuss an example of choosing 138 kV Line #3 Circuit Breaker, shown in Figure 1, assuming that the following information about the system is available: Continuous current for all the lines: Line #1 – 1,000 A, […]

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How Dangerous Are Induced Currents In Transmission Towers And Poles?

Electric Field Landowners and developers should be aware of the potential for nuisance and startle shocks (caused by induced voltage) that can occur when someone comes in contact with a large conductive object (eg. a vehicle, building or even fencing) located on or off the right-of-way. These shocks are known as ‘nuisance’ or ‘startle’ since they will […]

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The role of medium voltage switchgear in power system

Introduction According to international rules, there are only two voltage levels: Low voltage: up to and including 1 kV AC (or 1,500 V DC) High voltage: above 1 kV AC (or 1,500 V DC) Most electrical appliances used in household, commercial and industrial applications work with low voltage. High voltage is used not only to […]

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