Category Archive for: «Transmission and Distribution»

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Analysing the costs of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission

Topics discussed Introduction to HVDC Cost structure of HVDC Assumptions made in the price calculations Thyristor based HVDC system versus high voltage AC system VSC based HVDC system versus an AC system or a local generation source Comparative cost information Let’s start with introduction! It specifies a system used for transmitting or exchanging electrical power […]

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Site selection considerations for the future power substation

Final location of the facility At this stage, a footprint of the future power substation should be developed, including the layout of the major equipment. A decision on the final location of the facility can now be made and various options can be evaluated. Final grades, roadways, storm water retention, and environmental issues are addressed at […]

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An Example of Choosing 138 kV Line Circuit Breaker

Let’s choose 138 kV line #3 circuit breaker To better understand a process of high voltage equipment selection, let’s discuss an example of choosing 138 kV Line #3 Circuit Breaker, shown in Figure 1, assuming that the following information about the system is available: Continuous current for all the lines: Line #1 – 1,000 A, […]

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How Dangerous Are Induced Currents In Transmission Towers And Poles?

Electric Field Landowners and developers should be aware of the potential for nuisance and startle shocks (caused by induced voltage) that can occur when someone comes in contact with a large conductive object (eg. a vehicle, building or even fencing) located on or off the right-of-way. These shocks are known as ‘nuisance’ or ‘startle’ since they will […]

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The role of medium voltage switchgear in power system

Introduction According to international rules, there are only two voltage levels: Low voltage: up to and including 1 kV AC (or 1,500 V DC) High voltage: above 1 kV AC (or 1,500 V DC) Most electrical appliances used in household, commercial and industrial applications work with low voltage. High voltage is used not only to […]

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An example of calculating transformer size and voltage drop due to starting of large motor

Example Let’s calculate voltage drop in transformer 1000KVA, 11/0.480 kV, impedance 5.75% due to starting of  300 kW, 460V, 0.8 power factor, motor code D (kva/hp). Motor starts 2 times per hour and the allowable voltage drop at transformer secondary terminal is 10%. Ok, let’s get into the calculations… Motor current / Torque Motor full load […]

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9 typical issues addressed in a T&D network planning project

Network planning Transmission and distribution network planning projects are highly individual, because in each case the special conditions of the supply area, load demand and geographic distribution, technical standards and requirements, current status of the existing system, etc., have to be considered. The actual scope and goal of each project are different as well. Typical […]

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An example of calculating the technical losses of T&D lines

Introduction to Losses There are two types of losses in transmission and distribution line. Technical Losses and Commercial Losses. It’s necessary to calculate technical and commercial losses. Normally technical losses and commercial losses are calculated separately. Technical losses of the distribution line mostly depend upon electrical load, type and size of conductor, length of line […]

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How Best to Spend $450 Billion on Power Grid

Power Infrastructure Today’s power grid is suffering from a backlog in capital investment. While electrical power demand surged over recent years, electrical industry restructuring left utilities in a state of suspended animation. It is unclear who is responsible to make sure power infrastructure keeps up with demand, and who will benefit. This has left a […]

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5 Technologies to Boost Efficiency in the T&D System

Energy Efficiency in Power System One example of efficiency measures aimed primarily at the utilities that operate the T&D system is an initiative underway at the US Department of Energy to implement new efficiency standards for distribution transformers. These are the grey cylinders you see perched atop utility poles in residential neighborhoods, and the metalhoused […]

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