# Archive: Category «Transmission and Distribution»

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# How To Choose System’s Earthing Point And What Is The Practice Throughout The World

Normally in directly earthed and effectively earthed systems every available neutral point is earthed. Deviations from this occurs when the transformers neutral points are left unearthed. This is done to… Read more

Nov 27, 2017 | Edvard

# Differential Protection Of Feeders For Transformers And Tee-Offs (Tapped Lines)

On transformer feeders, the transformer and line or cable are connected in series and form a unit. In this manner, one CB can be saved. On feeders with tee-offs, transformers… Read more

Nov 20, 2017 | Edvard

# Overhead vs. Underground Residential Distribution Circuits. Which One Is ‘Better’?

This debate continues. Both designs have advantages (see Table 1). The major advantage of overhead circuits is cost. An underground circuit typically costs anywhere from 1 to 2.5 times the… Read more

Nov 13, 2017 | Edvard

# How To Calculate and Draw a Single Line Diagram For The Power System

This technical article explains how to calculate and draw a single line diagram of the three-phase, 60-Hz system power system with generators, motors, transformers and lines. The following components comprise… Read more

Nov 01, 2017 | Edvard

# The Structure of Electric Power Systems (Generation, Distribution and Transmission Of Energy)

From a general perspective, an electric power system is usually understood as a very large network that links power plants (large or small) to loads, by means of an electric… Read more

Oct 09, 2017 | Edvard

# The Basics of Hardware and Software for SCADA Systems You Should Know About

As it is known, the SCADA systems are able to measure and monitor different parameters and variables, such as: the level of liquids, the volume of the gases, the volumetric… Read more

Oct 02, 2017 | Edvard

# Substation ownership demarcation between the utility and the plant (considerations & issues)

The substation ownership demarcation between the utility and the plant is very important and should be determined carefully. Specific ownership of the substation and associated equipment may be a complicated… Read more

Sep 18, 2017 | Edvard

# Installing a submarine transmission cable, how they do it

Installing a submarine transmission cable is a costly and challenging activity. The lifetime of a submarine cable might be tens of years and the technical interventions for its repairing in… Read more

Sep 11, 2017 | Edvard

# The basics of primary distribution circuits (substation branches, feeders…)

Distribution circuits come in many different configurations and circuit lengths. Most share many common characteristics. Figure 1 shows a typical distribution circuit, and Table 1 shows typical parameters of a… Read more

Aug 28, 2017 | Edvard

# Automation of secondary distribution networks in rural areas

The challenges in network automation for rural areas are similar to those in urban areas, however the network topology may be very different. A typical conventional network topology is shown… Read more

Jul 12, 2017 | Edvard

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