*Continued from first part:*

* How to Determine Correct Number of Earthing Electrodes (Strips, Plates and Pipes) – part 1*

## 2. Calculate Number of Plate Earthing

**The Earth Resistance of Single Plate electrode is calculated as per IS 3040:**

R=ρ/A√(3.14/A)

**Where:**

**ρ** = Resistivity of Soil (Ω Meter),

**A** = Area of both side of Plate (m2),

**Example:** Calculate Number of CI Earthing Plate of 600×600 mm, System has Fault current 65KA for 1 Sec and Soil Resistivity is 100 Ω-Meters.

**Current Density At The Surface of Earth Electrode (As per IS 3043):**

**Max. Allowable Current Density I = 7.57×1000/(√ρxt) A/m2**- Max. Allowable Current Density = 7.57×1000/(√100X1)=757 A/m2
- Surface area of both side of single 600×600 mm Plate= 2 x lxw=2 x 0.06×0.06 = 0.72 m2
**Max. current dissipated by one Earthing Plate = Current Density x Surface area of electrode**- Max. current dissipated by one Earthing Plate =757×0.72=
**545.04****Amps** **Resistance of Earthing Plate (Isolated)(R)=ρ/A√(3.14/A)**- Resistance of Earthing Plate (Isolated)(R)=100/0.72x√(3.14/.072)=290.14 Ω
- Number of Earthing Plate required =Fault Current / Max.current dissipated by one Earthing Pipe.
- Number of Earthing Plate required= 65000/545.04 =
**119 No’s.** **Total Number of Earthing Plate required = 119 No’s.**- Overall resistance of 119 No of Earthing Plate=290.14/119=
**2.438 Ω.**

## 3. Calculating Resistance of Bared Earthing Strip

### 1) Calculation for earth resistance of buried Strip (As per IEEE)

The Earth Resistance of Single Strip of Rod buried in ground is:

R=ρ/Px3.14xL (loge (2xLxL/Wxh)+Q)

**Where:**

**ρ** = Resistivity of Soil (Ω Meter),

**h** = Depth of Electrode (Meter),

**w** = Width of Strip or Diameter of Conductor (Meter)

**L** = Length of Strip or Conductor (Meter)

**P** and **Q** are Koefficients

### 2) Calculation for earth resistance of buried Strip (As per IS 3043)

The Earth Resistance of Single Strip of Rod buried in ground is:

R=100xρ/2×3.14xL (loge (2xLxL/Wxt))

**Where:**

**ρ** = Resistivity of Soil (Ω Meter),

**L** = Length of Strip or Conductor (cm)

**w** = Width of Strip or Diameter of Conductor (cm)

**t** = Depth of burial (cm)

**Example: **Calculate Earthing Resistance of Earthing strip/wire of 36mm Diameter, 262 meter long buried at 500mm depth in ground, soil Resistivity is 65 Ω Meter.

**Here:**

**R** = Resistance of earth rod in **W**.

**r** = Resistivity of soil(Ω Meter) = **65 Ω Meter**

**l** = length of the rod (cm) = 262m = **26200 cm**

**d** = internal diameter of rod(cm) = 36mm = **3.6cm h** = Depth of the buried strip/rod (cm)= 500mm =

**50cm**

- Resistance of Earthing Strip/Conductor (R)=ρ/2×3.14xL (loge (2xLxL/Wt))
- Resistance of Earthing Strip/Conductor (R)=65/2×3.14x26200xln(2x26200x26200/3.6×50)
- Resistance of Earthing Strip/Conductor (R)=
**= 1.7****Ω**

## 4. Calculate Min. Cross Section area of Earthing Conductor

Cross Section Area of Earthing Conductor As per IS 3043

(A) =(If x√t) / K

**Where:**

**t** = Fault current Time (Second).

**K** = Material Constant.

**Example: **Calculate Cross Section Area of GI Earthing Conductor for System has 50KA Fault Current for 1 second. Corrosion will be 1.0 % Per Year and No of Year for Replacement is 20 Years.

Cross Section Area of Earthing Conductor **(A) =(If x√t) / K**

**Here:**

**If** = **50000 Amp**

**T** = **1 Second**

**K** = **80** (*Material Constant, For GI=80, copper K=205, Aluminium K=126*).

- Cross Section Area of Earthing Conductor (A) =
**(50000×1)/80** - Cross Section Area of GI Earthing Conductor (A) =
**625 Sq.mm** - Allowance for Corrosion = 1.0 % Per Year & Number of Year before replacement say =
**20 Years** - Total allowance = 20 x 1.0% =
**20%** - Safety factor =
**1.5** - Required Earthing Conductor size = Cross sectional area x Total allowance x Safety factor
- Required Earthing Conductor size = 1125 Sq.mm say 1200 Sq.mm
**Hence, Considered 1Nox12x100 mm GI Strip or 2Nox6 x 100 mm GI Strips**

## Thumb Rule for Calculate Number of Earthing Rod

The approximate earth resistance of the Rod/Pipe electrodes can be calculated by:

**Earth Resistance of the Rod/Pipe electrodes:**

R= K x ρ/L

**Where:**

**ρ** = Resistivity of earth in Ohm-Meter

**L** = Length of the electrode in Meter.

**d** = Diameter of the electrode in Meter.

**K** = 0.75 if 25< L/d < 100.

**K** = 1 if 100 < L/d < 600

**K** = 1.2 o/L if 600 < L/d < 300

**Number of Electrode if find out by Equation of R(d) = (1.5/N) x R**

**Where:**

* R(d)* = Desired earth resistance

*= Resistance of single electrode*

**R***= No. of electrodes installed in parallel at a distance of 3 to 4 Meter interval.*

**N****Example: **Calculate Earthing Pipe Resistance and Number of Electrode for getting Earthing Resistance of 1 Ω ,Soil Resistivity of ρ=40, Length=2.5 Meter, Diameter of Pipe = * 38 mm*.

**Here:**

L/d = 2.5/0.038=65.78 so **K = 0.75**

- The Earth Resistance of the Pipe electrodes R= K x ρ/L = 0.75×65.78 =
**12 Ω** - One electrode the earth resistance is
.**12 Ω** - To get Earth resistance of 1 Ω the total Number of electrodes required = (1.5×12)/1 =
**18 No**

## Calculating Resistance & Number of Earthing Rod

**Reference:** As per EHV Transmission Line Reference Book page: 290 and Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Section-I Page: 570-590.

**Earthing Resistance of Single Rods:**

R = ρx[ln (2L/a)-1]/(2×3.14xL)

**Earthing Resistance of Parallel Rods:**

R = ρx[ln (2L/A]/ (2×3.14xL)

**Where:**

* L* = length of rod in ground Meter,

*= radius of rod Meter*

**a***= ground resistivity, ohm-Meter*

**ρ***= √(axS)*

**A***= Rod separation Meter*

**S**## Factor affects on Ground resistance

The NEC code requires a minimum ground electrode length of 2.5 meters (8.0 feet) to be in contact with the soil. But, there are some factor that affect the ground resistance of a ground system:

**Length / Depth of the ground electrode**: double the length, reduce ground resistance by up to 40%.**Diameter of the ground electrode**: double the diameter, lower ground resistance by only 10%.**Number of ground electrodes**: for increased effectiveness, space additional electrodes at least equal to the depth of the ground electrodes.**Ground system design**: single ground rod to ground plate.

## The GI earthing conductor sizes for various equipment

No | Equipment | Earth strip size |

1 | HT switchgear, structures, cable trays & fence, rails, gate and steel column | 55 X 6 mm (GI) |

2 | Lighting Arrestor | 25 X 3 mm (Copper) |

3 | PLC Panel | 25 X 3 mm (Copper) |

4 | DG & Transformer Neutral | 50X6 mm (Copper) |

5 | Transformer Body | 50×6 mm (GI) |

6 | Control & Relay Panel | 25 X 6 mm (GI) |

7 | Lighting Panel & Local Panel | 25 X 6 mm (GI) |

8 | Distribution Board | 25 X 6 mm (GI) |

9 | Motor up to 5.5 kw | 4 mm2 (GI) |

10 | Motor 5.5 kw to 55 kw | 25 X 6 mm (GI) |

11 | Motor 22 kw to 55 kw | 40 X 6 mm (GI) |

12 | Motor Above 55 kw | 55 X 6 mm (GI) |

**Selection of Earthing System:**

Installations/Isc Capacity | IR Value Required | Soil Type/Resistivity | Earth System |

House hold earthing/3kA | 8 ohm | Normal Soil/ up to 50 ohm-meter | Single Electrode |

Sandy Soil/ between 50 to 2000 ohm-meter | Single Electrode | ||

Rocky Soil/ More than 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

Commercial premises,Office / 5kA | 2 ohm | Normal Soil/ up to 50 ohm-meter | Single Electrode |

Sandy Soil/ between 50 to 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

Rocky Soil/ More than 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

Transformers, substation earthing, LT line equipment/ 15kA | less than 1 ohm | Normal Soil/ up to 50 ohm-meter | Single Electrode |

Sandy Soil/ between 50 to 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

Rocky Soil/ More than 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

LA, High current Equipment./ 50kA | less than 1 ohm | Normal Soil/ up to 50 ohm-meter | Single Electrode |

Sandy Soil/ between 50 to 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

Rocky Soil/ More than 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

PRS, UTS, RTUs, Data processing centre etc./5KA | less than 0.5 ohm | Normal Soil/ up to 50 ohm-meter | Single Electrode |

Sandy Soil/ between 50 to 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes | ||

Rocky Soil/ More than 2000 ohm-meter | Multiple Electrodes |

## Size of Earthing Conductor

* Ref IS 3043 and Handbook on BS 7671:* The Lee Wiring Regulations by Trevor E. Marks.

Size of Earthing Conductor | ||

Area of Phase Conductor S (mm2) | Area of Earthing conductor (mm2) When It is Same Material as Phase Conductor | Area of Earthing conductor (mm2) When It is Not Same Material as Phase Conductor |

S < 16 mm2 | S | SX(k1/k2) |

16 mm2<S< 35 mm2 | 16 mm2 | 16X(k1/k2) |

S > 35 mm2 | S/2 | SX(k1/2k2) |

K1 is value of Phase conductor,k2 is value of earthing conductor | ||

Value of K for GI=80, Alu=126,Cu=205 for 1 Sec |

## Standard earthing strip/plate/pipe/wire weight

**GI Earthing Strip:**

Size (mm2) | Weight |

20 x 3 | 500 gm Per meter |

25 x 3 | 600 gm Per meter |

25 x 6 | 1/200 Kg Per meter |

32 x 6 | 1/600 Kg Per meter |

40 x 6 | 2 Kg Per meter |

50 x 6 | 2/400 Kg Per meter |

65 x 10 | 5/200 Kg Per meter |

75 x 12 | 7/200 Kg Per meter |

### GI Earthing Plate

Plate | Weight |

600 x 600 x 3 mm | 10 Kg App. |

600 x 600 x 4 mm | 12 Kg App. |

600 x 600 x 5 mm | 15 Kg App. |

600 x 600 x 6 mm | 18 Kg App. |

600 x 600 x 12 mm | 36 Kg App. |

1200 x 1200 x 6 mm | 70 Kg App. |

1200 x 1200 x 12 mm | 140 Kg App. |

### GI Earthing Pipe

Pipe | Weight |

3 meter Long BISE | 5 Kg App. |

3 meter r Long BISE | 9 Kg App. |

4.5 meter (15′ Long BISE) | 5 Kg App. |

4.5 meter (15′ Long BISE) | 9 Kg App. |

4.5 meter (15′ Long BISE) | 14 Kg App |

### GI Earthing Wire

Plate | Weight |

6 Swg | 5 meter in 1 Kg |

8 Swg | 9 meter in 1 Kg |

Deval

How we considered costant K in 4. Calculate Min. Cross Section area of Earthing Conductor ?

Reza laali

Dear sir

In oil and gas projects we earth pipes and structures every 25 or 30 meter

Do you have any calculation for this?

Best regard

J.Ganapathy

Dear sir

This article is very useful for me.Thank you for the same.will you please furnish lighting calculation detail.

Tanks & regards

Niket Deshmukh

hello sir

if i want to replace 6 sq. mm copper wire with gi wire then how much area i want for gi wire

Niket Deshmukh

Hello sir,

can we use same area GI bare bundled conductor instead of GI earthing Strip?

bhargava

I would like to download these articles for my personal reference. So please help me to get those.

m.gunasekaran

Good sir.

Lumlang Nongkhlaw

I would like to download varoius electrical manuals for my personal learning

Prashant

Can u please provide me the formula for treated plate electrode.

Prashant

Dear Sir,

I have seen practice of providing plate electrode for main equipment earthing (HT switchgear, transformer body etc) while pipe electrodes for whole earthing system why plate electrode we used for main equipment (as we know pipe electrode is superior to plate electrode).

Rekha

How to determine the fault MVA at the generating station having two DGs and two transformers

sariqth

How to calculate the internal earthing cable for the panel?

Please try to sort it out and gave me reply on my mail ID.

Sufi

Can you tell me please, where is the Part 1?

kushant

i put two parallel earthpit so pls suggest me the standard distance between them as per ISO…

kindly do needfull

Ashok Parikh

Article for calculating nos. of electrodes of different types is very much useful to designers like me. I would like to draw your attention to formula for calculating resistance bare earthing conductor or strip, where diameter of conductor is to be used. As provided in IS:3034, twice the diameter of conductor is to be taken, whereas for bare strip only width of strip is to be taken. In example given in the article, probably single diameter of conductor is used. Moreover, formula starts with 100x(soil resistivity – raw), whereas in calculation only 65 (ohm-m) is shown and is not multiplied with 100. I am unable to get 1.7 ohm while making calculations as per formula. Kindly check up and revert back.

beshoy adel

thnx alot

Somu

The article is very much useful Sir.

Thanks a lot.