General Electric power transformer nameplate (50 MVA Substation Power Transformer with Load Tap Changer)
General Electric power transformer nameplate (50 MVA Substation Power Transformer with Load Tap Changer)

Star-Delta Connection Overview

In this type of transformer connection, then primary is connected in star fashion while the secondary is connected in delta fashion as shown in the Figure 1 below.

Transformer Connection - Star-Delta
Figure 1 – Transformer Connection – Star-Delta

The voltages on primary and secondary sides can be represented on the phasor diagram as shown in the Figure 2 below.

Phasor diagram with voltages on primary and secondary sides
Figure 2 – Phasor diagram with voltages on primary and secondary sides

Key points

  1. As Primary in Star connected
  2. Line voltage on Primary side = √3 X Phase voltage on Primary side. So
  3. Phase voltage on Primary side = Line voltage on Primary side / √3
  4. Now Transformation Ration (K) = Secondary Phase Voltage / Primary Phase Voltage
  5. Secondary Phase Voltage = K X Primary Phase Voltage.
  6. As Secondary  in delta connected:
  7. Line voltage on Secondary side = Phase voltage on Secondary side.
  8. Secondary Phase Voltage = K X Primary Phase Voltage. =K X (Line voltage on Primary side / √3)
  9. Secondary Phase Voltage = (K/√3 ) X Line voltage on Primary side.
  10. There is s +30 Degree or -30 Degree Phase Shift between Secondary Phase Voltage to Primary Phase Voltage

Advantages of Star Delta Connection

  1. The primary side is star connected. Hence fewer numbers of turns are required. This makes the connection economical for large high voltage step down power transformers.
  2. The neutral available on the primary can be earthed to avoid distortion.
  3. The neutral point allows both types of loads (single phase or three phases) to be met.
  4. Large unbalanced loads can be handled satisfactory.
  5. The Y-D connection has no problem with third harmonic components due to circulating currents inD. It is also more stable to unbalanced loads since the D partially redistributes any imbalance that occurs.
  6. The delta connected winding carries third harmonic current due to which potential of neutral point is stabilized. Some saving in cost of insulation is achieved if HV side is star connected. But in practice the HV side is normally connected in delta so that the three phase loads like motors and single phase loads like lighting loads can be supplied by LV side using three phase four wire system.
  7. As Grounding Transformer: In Power System Mostly grounded Y- ∆ transformer is used for no other purpose than to provide a good ground source in ungrounded Delta system. Take, for example, a distribution system supplied by connected (i.e., ungrounded) power source.
    If it is required to connect phase-to-ground loads to this system a grounding bank is connected to the system, as shown in Figure 3 below:

    Y-D Grounding transformer
    Figure 3 – Y-D Grounding transformer

  8. This system a grounding bank is connected to the system, as shown in Figure 3. Note that the connected winding is not connected to any external circuit in Figure 3.
  9. With a load current equal to 3 times i, each phase of the grounded Y winding provides the same current i, with the  -connected secondary winding of the grounding bank providing the ampere-turns required to cancel the ampere-turns of the primary winding. Note that the grounding bank does not supply any real power to the load; it is there merely to provide a ground path. All the power required by the load is supplied by two phases of the ungrounded supply.

Disadvantages of Star-Delta Connection

In this type of connection, the secondary voltage is not in phase with the primary. Hence it is not possible to operate this connection in parallel with star-star or delta-delta connected transformer.

One problem associated with this connection is that the secondary voltage is shifted by 300 with respect to the primary voltage. This can cause problems when paralleling 3-phase transformers since transformers secondary voltages must be in-phase to be paralleled. Therefore, we must pay attention to these shifts.

If secondary of this transformer should be paralleled with secondary of another transformer without phase shift, there would be a problem.


It is commonly employed for power supply transformers. This type of connection is commonly employed at the substation end of the transmission line. The main use with this connection is to step down the voltage. The neutral available on the primary side is grounded. It can be seen that there is phase difference of 30° between primary and secondary line voltages.

Commonly used in a step-down transformer, Y connection on the HV side reduces insulation costs the neutral point on the HV side can be grounded, stable with respect to unbalanced loads. As for example, at the end of a transmission line. The neutral of the primary winding is earthed.

In this system, line voltage ratio is 1/√3 Times of transformer turn-ratio and secondary voltage lags behind primary voltage by 30°. Also third harmonic currents flow in the to give a sinusoidal flux.

About Author //


Jignesh Parmar

jiguparmar - Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control) ,B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE),India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 13 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in "Electrical Mirror", "Electrical India", "Lighting India", "Industrial Electrix"(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.


  1. Mohanan Nair
    Dec 22, 2016

    Dear Er. Jignesh,
    When we use star delta step down TR( like in SVC- 220/25KV), assume that no grounding TR is used. In that case the ground stabilaization of LV winding is possible only through the neutral point of the LV -VT.
    Is it adequate to mitigate capacitive coupled votage rise of the LV winding with reference to ground?
    Or a static shielded TR LV is required? Is their any risk of HV to LV capacitance resonating with VT primary impedence? Mohanan Nair, Senior Engineer, NG, KSA

  2. shantilal
    Dec 09, 2016

    how to measure the impedance of three winding transformer we have 1.5kva 11000v /320-320v transformer three winding please solve my problem. thank you.

  3. Ian
    Jul 15, 2016

    I have a power transformer grounding on the primary y side. The relay feeding this section of the network is showing current looks to ground. The TX is presently very lightly loaded. Is this earth current to be expected

  4. shubham sachan
    May 17, 2016

    what is difference between line turn ration and phase turn ratio of three phase transformer.

  5. Gil Ho
    Jan 26, 2016

    Key Point 10 should be modified as following:

    10. There is s +30 Degree or -30 Degree Phase Shift between Secondary Phase(line) Voltage to Primary line Voltage

  6. C B Paliwal
    Jan 22, 2016

    We have Star Delta power transformer and there is neutral current flowing in circuit though neutral is earthed. This current also changes , Please advise the reason or it will be there ,so what should be the earth fault current setting in this case.

  7. dagne haile
    Oct 30, 2015

    I want advantge and disadvantage of two delta one star single phase step up genration transformer and one delta one star single phase step up generation transformer. I want a bright response from you

  8. Ravi sharma
    Sep 25, 2015

    how the start earthing transformer designe.plz send the excel work sheet on my mail

  9. S Arjuna Rao
    Mar 12, 2015

    What is the voltage ratio of

    Yzn11, Zigzag, 100 kVA, 20000/400 V transformer…please clarify

  10. sal
    Jan 08, 2015

    building has 120/208 volts 3phase I need to hookup a 3phase 460 volts for a condenser unit on a rooftop stepup transformer do I install the neutral on the primary side of the transformer what about the secondary delta side 460 volts ? what if their is a fault on the secondary side short circuit how will the OCP device open ? transformer will be grounded as per NEC if their should be a ground fault . could I ground the neutral and equipment to the same ground on the frame ground terminal ? thanks for any input.

    Nov 14, 2014

    What is the insulation resistance result of 630KVA transformer at HT & LT Side between each phase ?

  12. G.Balavinayagar
    Oct 01, 2014

    Kindly send me the results (out put voltage) , when one phase of three phase transformer is not given (say R phase) and R phase winding is shorted in delta side of delta – star transformer. I require the magnitude of out put voltages on star side.The transformer rating is 11KV/433V, 100 KVA, Delta-Star transformer.

  13. Pankaj Pandey
    Jul 09, 2014

    Please show the diagram in which a power generation , transmission and distribution system is shown with transformer connected, type of transformer and windings must be clearly vißible .last time there was a stion in exam
    Q. In a transmission system,the stàr side of stardelta transformer is on the HV side, whereas in a distribition system, the star side is on the low voltage side. Explain,. Please provide the ans with appriate explanation

  14. theophilus stephen
    Mar 27, 2014

    please whats the relation between the secondary and primary line voltages

  15. Rocket
    Oct 25, 2013

    With all due respect, there are some over simplifications in the text, such as under “Disadvantages” it is basically the same disadvantage mentioned three times, and it appears as if only transformers with a WINDING ratio of 1:1 can be treated this way.

  16. Thomas J. Zazulak
    Mar 11, 2013

    Would you be so kind as to rewrite your article as DELTA-STAR. Using the primary as the DELTA and H1, H2, H3 as the terminals.
    The secondary as the STAR and X1, X2, X3 as the terminals.
    Thus the transformer name plate will match your discussion.
    Thanks, Tom Zazulak

  17. logitek256
    Jun 20, 2012

    no offence but this article is not clear at all…..

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