Technical Articles

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Arc Flash Hazard Calculation In 9 Steps Using IEEE 1584

Arc Flash Hazard – Safe practices The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 1584 “Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations”. It contains detailed methods and data that can be used to calculate arc flash hazards for the simplest to the most complex systems. IEEE spent many years developing these methods. […]

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DC Testing Methods Conducted On Solid Insulation

DC Testing Methods // Let’s take a look at the two important tests that are conducted with DC voltage. Two tests can be conducted on solid insulation using following DC testing methods // Insulation resistance testing High-potential (Hi-pot) voltage testing 1. Insulation Resistance Testing This test may be conducted at applied voltages of 100–15,000 V. […]

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Guidelines For Installing Power Transformers

Operation of power transformers // When your transformer arrives on site, various procedures should be carried out to assure successful operation (installation, testing and various checkings). The successful operation of a transformer is dependent on proper installation as well as on good design and manufacture. The instructions mentioned in the manufacturer manual or in Standards […]

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How electricans test continuity of protective conductors

Testing protective conductors For all protective conductors, including main and supplementary bonding conductors, electricians must perform continuity test using a low-reading ohmmeter. For main equipotential bonding, there is no single fixed value of resistance above which the conductor would be deemed unsuitable. Each measured value, if indeed it is measurable for very short lengths, should […]

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8 Actions to Improve Energy Efficiency In Heating Systems

Energy efficiency of heating systems In many buildings, HVAC is the first or second item in terms of energy costs. This technical article deals with optimisation tips and energy efficiency savings in heating systems of a building. Heating systems in building Heating systems have always been used when the outside temperature drops below a certain […]

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4 Test Instruments Most Frequently Used By Electricians

Testing an electrical installation // The test instruments and test leads used by the electrician for testing an electrical installation must meet all the requirements of the relevant regulations. The HSE has published Guidance Notes GS 38 (download below) for test equipment used by electricians. The IEE Regulations (BS 7671) also specify the test voltage […]

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Where Do Electrical Faults Occur The Most?

Causes of electrical faults // A fault is not a natural occurrence. It is an unplanned event which occurs unexpectedly. Electrical faults in an electrical installation or piece of equipment may be caused by // Negligence – that is, lack of proper care and attention Misuse – that is, not using the equipment properly or correctly […]

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Why I Prefer Busbar Trunking Systems More Than Cables

Planning concept for power supply // When a planning concept for power supply is developed, it is not only imperative to observe standards and regulations, it is also important to discuss and clarify economic and technical interrelations (cables and/or busbar trunking systems depending on situations). The rating and selection of electric equipment, such as distribution […]

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Important points about grounding of electronic equipment

Safety grounding // Grounding electronic equipment for personal safety and clearing of faults is no different than that of any other equipment. Safe grounding requires fast opening of circuit breakers or fuses and minimization of voltage differences between exposed metal surfaces on all of the involved electrical system and equipment, to levels that are safe […]

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Harmonics. What are they? What do they do?

What are harmonics? The harmonics allow to represent any periodic waveform. In fact, according to Fourier’s theorem, any periodic function of a period T may be represented as a summation of: A sinusoid with the same period T; Some sinusoids with the same frequency as whole multiples of the fundamental; A possible continuous component, if the function […]

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