Technical Articles

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Understanding The Ratios Of Magnetic HV Instrument Current Transformers

Primary & secondary windings The primary winding is a part of the network, carrying the actual load current. The transformer’s secondary circuits usually consist of several units, each of them having its own magnetic core and winding. The transformer has a rated current transforming ratio, like for example 200/1 A, stating the rated primary current […]

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5 Most Common Motor Load Types

Load profile (speed range, torque and power) Certain load types are characteristic in the industrial world. Knowing the load profile (speed range, torque and power) is essential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter for the application. Some common load types are shown. There may also be combinations of these types. Constant Torque Quadratic […]

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Important Guidelines To Startup and Shutdown a Large Generator

Operating Conditions // The purpose of this guidelines is to ensure the continuing operational integrity of generators. Operating conditions (startup and shutdown) that have forced units off-line or have damaged or shortened the life of turbine (or generator) components in the past are highlighted in the guideline to prevent recurrences in the future. Startup Operation […]

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Basics of Built-in Motor Protection for Beginners

Why is motor protection necessary? In order to avoid unexpected breakdowns, costly repairs and subsequent losses due to motor downtime, it is important that the motor is fitted with some sort of protective device. This article will deal with built-in motor protection with thermal overload protection to avoid damage and breakdown of motor. The built-in […]

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Motor Connection for Clockwise and Counterclockwise Direction of Rotation

Star-delta (Y-Δ, wye-delta) starting Star-delta (in North America the designation “wye-delta” is commonly used instead) starting is the simplest method for reducing the starting current of a motor. The technique can be used with all squirrel-cage induction motors that are delta-connected for normal operation and whose windings ends are individually connected to terminals. The reduction […]

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Field Data Interface Devices as Eyes and Ears of a SCADA System

It’s all about information // Field data interface devices form the “eyes and ears” of a SCADA system. Devices such as reservoir level meters, water flow meters, valve position transmitters, temperature transmitters, power consumption meters, and pressure meters all provide information that can tell an experienced operator how well a water distribution system is performing. […]

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3 Overcurrent Protective Device Ratings You Must Properly Select

Ampere, voltage and interrupting rating In order for an overcurrent protective device to operate properly, the overcurrent protective device ratings must be properly selected. These ratings include: Voltage rating Ampere rating and Interrupting rating - Minimum Interrupting Rating. If the interrupting rating is not properly selected, a serious hazard for equipment and personnel will exist. Current […]

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Single versus Parallel Generators – 7 Factors To Consider

7 factors to consider when deciding // Paralleling is the synchronous operation of two or more generator sets connected together on a common bus in order to provide power to common loads as shown in Figure 1. In deciding whether a single or multiple generators should be installed there are various factors to be considered, such as: Reliability […]

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Maintenance and testing of the overcurrent protective devices

Electrical system reliability When designing electrical distribution systems, required maintenance and testing of the overcurrent protective devices is a very important consideration. The electrical system reliability, component and circuit protection, and overall safety are directly related to the reliability and performance of the overcurrent protective device and can depend upon whether the required testing and […]

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Calculating The Short-Circuit Heating Of Busbars

Short-Circuit Effects Like all electrical circuits, busbars need to be protected against the effects of short-circuit currents. The open construction of busbars increases the risk of faults, e.g. by the ingress of foreign bodies into air gaps, and the risk of consequent damage is high due to their high normal operating currents and the amount […]

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