Technical Articles

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Impulse withstand voltage test performed on assemblies

Rated impulse withstand voltage Only optional in the past, the impulse test which allow defining the rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp, is now a necessity thus demonstrating the strategy of the Standards directed to increasing the importance of such performance. In addition to the ordinary temporary overvoltages, usually incoming from the supply line, the plants […]

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6 Recommended Practices for Power Quality

Poor power quality because of… Power quality concerns have traditionally focused on harmonics, which are generated by nonlinear loads, although there are many other concerns regarding isolating sensitive loads from transient disturbances, uneven ground potentials, or phase imbalances. Poor power quality affects the reliable operation of computers and computer-based equipment, which are now ubiquitous, plus standard equipment such as […]

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4 Practical Approaches To Minimize Voltage Drop Problems

What NEC states for max. voltage drop? The NEC states in an Informational Note that a maximum voltage drop of 3% for branch circuit conductors, and 5% for feeder and branch circuit conductors together, will provide reasonable efficiency of operation for general use circuits. For sensitive electronic loads, circuits should be designed for a maximum […]

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Do Not Energize Oil-Filled Transformer Without Performing These 15 Tests and Checks!

Obligatory Checklist The following tests and checks should be performed at a minimum to ensure that the transformer is ready to be energized. Do not energize the transformer without performing these tests and checks. If any of below explained tests fail and transformer is energized anyway, it may lead to the serious hazard, and that’s […]

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Basic Transformer Routine Test – Measurement of Winding Resistances

Purpose of the measurement The resistance between all pairs of phase terminals of each transformer winding are measured using direct current. Furthermore the corresponding winding temperature is measured. The measured resistances are needed in connection with the load loss measurement when the load losses are corrected to correspond to the reference temperature. The resistance measurement […]

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Smart Load Management Strategies To Save Energy

How utilities understand the loads… As part of their drive towards synchronizing the consumption and production of electrical energy over the long term, energy distribution companies tailor their rates to encourage consumers to reduce their requirements during peak periods. A number of different strategies are possible, depending on consumption levels and operating requirements: restricting demand […]

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Selection of HV Conductors And Earth Wires

Aluminium ACSR Conductors Conductors represent the most important component of an overhead power line because they have to ensure economical and reliable transmission and contribute considerably to the total line costs. However, aluminum is a very corrosive metal. But a dense oxide layer is formed that stops further corrosive attacks. Therefore, up to a certain […]

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How can I select the right capacitors for my specific application needs?

Power factor correction Once you’ve decided that your facility can benefit from power factor correction, you’ll need to choose the optimum type, size, and number of capacitors for your plant. Individual vs. banked installations 7 advantages of individual capacitors at the load: Complete control // Capacitors cannot cause problems on the line during light load conditions […]

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Ring Main Unit (RMU) as an important part of secondary distribution substations

RMU A Ring Main Unit (RMU) is a totally sealed, gas-insulated compact switchgear unit. The primary switching devices can be either switch disconnectors or fused switch disconnectors or circuit breakers. Different combinations of these primary switching devices within the unit are commonly used. In case a circuit breaker is the switching device, it is also […]

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A real life analogy of the jurisdiction of the protection relay

To Protect the Transmission Line Under Fault Formally, a relay is a logical element which processes the inputs (mostly voltages and currents) from the system/apparatus and issues a trip decision if a fault within the protection relay‘s jurisdiction is detected. A conceptual diagram of relay is shown in Figure 1 below. Let’s see an example […]

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