Technical Articles

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7 Key Steps In Lighting Design Process

Structured Design Process // To achieve the best overall outcome in a lighting installation, it is important to avoid the tendency of rushing straight into luminaire selection before determining more broadly what is required from the system. The use of a structured design process helps to avoid this. The key steps in the design process […]

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Practical Considerations of Transformer Heat and Noise

Unwanted electrical effects // In addition to unwanted electrical effects, transformers may also exhibit undesirable physical effects, the most notable being the production of heat and noise. Transformer noise is primarily a nuisance effect, but heat is a potentially serious problem because winding insulation will be damaged if allowed to overheat. Heating may be minimized by […]

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7 Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities In Lighting System

Lighting in industrial facilities There are a lot of opportunities to optimise lighting system in (almost) any industrial facility. Seven practical energy-efficiency opportunities to reduce energy use cost-effectively are given below: Lighting controls Replace T-12 tubes by T-8 tubes Replace mercury lights with metal halide or high pressure sodium lights Replace metal halide (HID) with high-intensity fluorescent […]

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13 Basic expressions often used in electrical testing

Testing of electrical installations // This is the simple list of basic terms you can often hear when testing and measurements of electrical installation (in general) is being performed. While expirienced electrical engineers will find this list short, I hope beginners will catch the essence and continue exploring this field of electrical engineering. Feel free […]

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11 Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities In Compressed Air Systems

85% of energy lost as waste heat… Instrumentation consumes large amounts of compressed air at many individual locations in a textile plant, but these uses are susceptible to leakage. Most such leaks are at: Threaded connection points, Rubber hose connections, Valves, Regulators, Seals, and in old pneumatic equipment. Air leaks from knitting operations are very […]

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Essential Basics of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

THD definition For a signal y, the total harmonic distortion (THD) is defined by the equation: This definition complies with that of standard IEC 61000-2-2. Note that the resulting value may exceed one. According to the standard, h can generally be limited to 50. This equation produces a single value indicating the distortion of a voltage […]

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Two Circuit-Breaker Types For Automatic Disconnection Of the Supply

Automatic disconnection The Standard IEC 60364 prescribes automatic disconnection of the supply for protection against indirect contact. What does it mean // The protective device shall automatically disconnect the supply so that, in the event of a fault between a live part and an exposed-conductive-part or a protective conductor, a prospective touch voltage exceeding 50 […]

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Comparision of Direct-on-line (DOL) and Star-delta Motor Starting

Motor starting methods // Direct-on-line (DOL) starting Advantages Drawbacks Star-delta starting Advantages Drawbacks Comparision of DOL and Star-delta starting Direct-on-line starting (DOL) As the name suggests, direct-on-line starting means that the motor is started by connecting it directly to the supply at rated voltage. Direct-on-line starting, (DOL), is suitable for stable supplies and mechanically stiff […]

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What can a PLC do? Why do we use them?

The meaning of PLC… “PLC” means “Programmable Logic Controller”, that’s clear. The word “Programmable” differentiates it from the conventional hard-wired relay logic. It can be easily programmed or changed as per the application’s requirement. The PLC also surpassed the hazard of changing the wiring. The PLC as a unit consists of a processor to execute the […]

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Differences in size and weight of equipment using copper and aluminium conductors

Common misconception It is a common misconception that electrical equipment built using aluminum conductors will always be larger than the same equipment using copper conductors. While the actual conductor within the equipment will be larger with aluminum, many times the enclosure for the equipment is the same size whether copper or aluminum conductors are used. […]

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