Technical Articles

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Single versus Parallel Generators – 7 Factors To Consider

7 factors to consider when deciding // Paralleling is the synchronous operation of two or more generator sets connected together on a common bus in order to provide power to common loads as shown in Figure 1. In deciding whether a single or multiple generators should be installed there are various factors to be considered, such as: Reliability […]

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Maintenance and testing of the overcurrent protective devices

Electrical system reliability When designing electrical distribution systems, required maintenance and testing of the overcurrent protective devices is a very important consideration. The electrical system reliability, component and circuit protection, and overall safety are directly related to the reliability and performance of the overcurrent protective device and can depend upon whether the required testing and […]

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Calculating The Short-Circuit Heating Of Busbars

Short-Circuit Effects Like all electrical circuits, busbars need to be protected against the effects of short-circuit currents. The open construction of busbars increases the risk of faults, e.g. by the ingress of foreign bodies into air gaps, and the risk of consequent damage is high due to their high normal operating currents and the amount […]

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Cable Sizing of Sub-Main Circuits – Working Examples

Few words about Sub-main circuits… A sub-main circuit can be defined as a circuit connected directly from the main LV switchboard to a sub-main distribution panel or a rising main for final connection of the minor current-using equipment. The Code requires that the maximum copper loss in every sub-main circuit should not exceed 1.5% of the total active power […]

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5 Types of equipment which generates the most harmonics

Non-linear loads // Harmonic load currents are generated by all non-linear loads. This includes: Switched mode power supplies (SMPS) Electronic fluorescent lighting ballasts Variable speed drives (VSDs) Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) Magnetic-cored devices 1. Switched mode power supplies (SMPS) The majority of modern electronic units use switched mode power supplies (SMPS). These differ from older […]

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What to do if transformer has an excessive moisture content

Moisture measurement The term “moisture” in the transformer industry is commonly used to indicate water which is absorbed in the paper or dissolved in the oil. Occasionally, the terms “water” or “water content” are used as an alternative way to describe the same substance. Water in transformers can be found in different parts of the […]

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What To Check When Commissioning Variable Speed Drives

The purpose of commissioning VSDs The main purpose of commissioning VSDs is to ensure that: The AC converter and motor have been correctly installed and meet the wiring and safety standards such as IEC 60364 or Australian standard AS 3000. The power and motor cables are correctly sized, installed and terminated. All power cable shields […]

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4 Power Transformer Protection Devices – Explained In Details

Oil Transformer protection The power transformer protection is realized with two different kinds of devices, namely the devices that are measuring the electrical quantities affecting the transformer through instrument transformers and the devices that are indicating the status of the physical quantities at the transformer itself. An example of the former could be current-based differential […]

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Detailed Overview of Power System Disturbances (Causes and Impacts)

Power Quality problems To make the study of Power Quality problems useful, the various types of disturbances need to be classified by magnitude and duration. This is especially important for manufacturers and users of equipment that may be at risk. Manufacturers need to know what is expected of their equipment, and users, through monitoring, can determine if an equipment […]

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Basic Stand-Alone Application of Reclosers

Overcurrent protection Reclosers are self-contained fault interrupting and reclosing devices, specifically designed for overcurrent protection in secondary distribution systems. Reclosers are situated in selected locations within the overhead distribution network. With the correct protection setting and MV fuse selection coordination, concerning the whole supply loop from the supplying primary distribution substation feeder to the fuse-protected […]

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