Technical Articles

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Good Voltage Regulation and Justified Power Factor Correction

Commercial Building Case Power factor correction and voltage regulation are closely related. In many cases, the desired voltage regulation is costly to obtain. Larger or paralleled conductors to reduce voltage drop under load are, in many cases, the proper solution. However, power factor correction may also be justified for four reasons: To improve voltage To […]

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General Guidelines for Online Partial Discharge Testing of Power Cables

Faults in the cable insulation Online PD testing is becoming the topic of interest for power cable owners to ensure the safe and continuous operation of power cables. If PD source is detected timely in the cable system, it could save the huge cost of unplanned outage to Plant owners. Regular periodic or continuous monitoring […]

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6 Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities In Fan Systems

Energy Saving Potential Efficiencies of fan systems vary considerably across impeller types. The average energy saving potential in these systems in the U.S. manufacturing industry is estimated at 6%. For optimal savings and performance, it is recommended that a systems approach is used. In the following, energy saving opportunities for fan systems are presented. Minimizing […]

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Maintenance of Load Tap Changers (LTCs)

Regulating transformer’s level of reliability LTC maintenance is the basis for the regulating transformer’s high level of reliability. The background for maintenance recommendations is as follows: Oil // For LTCs where oil is used for arc-quenching, the arcing at the arcing switch or arcing tap switch contacts causes contact erosion and carbonization of the arcing […]

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Many engineers advocate the use of multiple-transfer switches

Why multiple-transfer switches Automatic transfer switches are primarily used for emergency and standby power generation systems. These transfer switches may incorporate overcurrent protection and are designed and applied in accordance with the NEC, Articles 230, 517, 700, 701,702 and 710, and other applicable standards. To comply with codes and standard requirements for reliability, automatic transfer […]

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4 Low Voltage Switchboard Partitioning Forms Defined By IEC 61439-2

Reasons for partitioning // There are 4 main reasons for partitioning a switchboard. To protect persons against direct contact with dangerous parts. The minimum degree of protection must be IPXXB. To protect the switchboard against the penetration of solid foreign bodies. The minimum degree of protection must be IP2X. To limit the propagation of an electric arc inside the switchboard […]

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11 Major Causes of Power System Failures

Utility Reliability Problems To gain a broader understanding of power system reliability, it is necessary to understand the root causes of system faults and system failures. A description of major failure modes is provided below. Underground Cable Transformer Failures Lightning Tree Contact Birds Squirrels Snakes Insects Bears, Bison, and Cattle Mice, Rats, and Gophers Vandalism […]

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6 Transformer Types You Can See In Commercial Installations

Transformer Types and their Characteristics Transformers in commercial installations are normally used to change a voltage level from a utility distribution voltage to a voltage that is usable within the building, and are also used to reduce building distribution voltage to a level that can be utilized by specific equipment. Applicable standards are the ANSI […]

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Comparison of Motor Speed Control Methods

Why motor speed control? It is often desirable to control the motor speed, usually for reasons process control for such variables as flow or pressure. Such applications as fans and pumps often have varying output requirements, and control of the motor speed is more efficient than mechanically limiting the process output with such devices as […]

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Should We Blame Supplier For Voltage Dips and Transients?

Well, yes and no… Voltage dips and transients are usually blamed on the supplier, but this is often unfair. There are many potential on-site causes; for example, starting of heavy loads may cause voltage dips and switching of inductive loads will generate transients. Let’s talk about how actually voltage dips and transients are created and […]

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