Technical Articles

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5 Technologies to Boost Efficiency in the T&D System

Energy Efficiency in Power System One example of efficiency measures aimed primarily at the utilities that operate the T&D system is an initiative underway at the US Department of Energy to implement new efficiency standards for distribution transformers. These are the grey cylinders you see perched atop utility poles in residential neighborhoods, and the metalhoused […]

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Three Awesome HVDC projects in Australia

Modern HVDC systems combines the good experience of the old installations with recently developed technologies and materials. It is important to remark that an HVDC system not only transmit electrical power from one point to another, but it also has a lot of value added which should have been necessary to solve by another means […]

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Overcoming barriers to renewable energy deployment

Undeservedly second… Despite some gains in recent years, renewable energy sources make only a modest contribution to the provision of modern energy services worldwide. Why is it so? The principal constraints to their growth are their costs and their unrewarded environmental characteristics (the continuing and exclusive use of production costs to compare energy options without […]

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8 steps to begin basic circuit design

How do we begin to design? What do we need to know? Clearly, plunging into calculations of cable size is of little value unless the type of cable and its method of installation is known. This, in turn, will depend on the installation’s environment. At the same time, we would need to know whether the […]

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Which type of residual current device (RCD) to use and when?

Total earth loop impedance We know how (very) important the total earth loop impedance Zs is in the reduction of shock risk. However, in TT systems where the mass of earth is part of the fault path, the maximum values of Zs given in the IEE Regulations may be hard to satisfy. Added to this, […]

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Erection Procedures of Earthing Arrangements (TNC, TN-S, TNC-S and TT)

Earthing of low voltage networks The earthing of low voltage networks in the UK is largely determined by the Low Voltage Supplies. However, if the incoming supplies are at 11kV and the transformers are in the ownership of the user, the LV supplies may be earthed in a less conventional way using a high impedance. […]

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Inspection and Test procedures for Instrument Transformers

Procedures to follow: Visual and Mechanical Inspection Electrical Tests: Electrical Tests – Current Transformers Electrical Tests – Voltage Transformers Electrical Tests – Coupling-Capacitor Voltage Transformers Electrical Tests – High-Accuracy Instrument Transformers (Reserved) Test Values: Test Values: Visual and Mechanical Test Values: Current Transformers – Electrical Test Values:Voltage Transformers – Electrical Test Values: Coupling Capacitor Voltage […]

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Electromagnetic Stresses On Busbar System

Introduction When a conductor carries a current it creates a magnetic field which interacts with any other magnetic field present to produce a force. When the currents flowing in two adjacent conductors are in the same direction the force is one of attraction, and when the currents are in opposite directions a repulsive force is […]

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Electrical Design Project of a Three Bed Room House (Part 2)

Continued from 1st part: Electrical Design Project of a Three Bed Room House (Part 1) Building regulations Smoke detectors All new domestic dwellings, including conversions, must either have: A fire detection and fire alarm system in accordance with the relevant recommendations of British Standard BS 5839-6 system; or Mains operated smoke alarms, with at least […]

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PLC implementation of the bottle-filling application

Detection of position In this example (see Figure 1), we will implement a control program that detects the position of a bottle via a limit switch, waits 0.5 seconds, and then fills the bottle until a photosensor detects a filled condition. After the bottle is filled, the control program will wait 0.7 seconds before moving to […]

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