Technical Articles

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Transformer Cooling Classes

There is no ‘ideal’ transformer // Since no transformer is truly an “ideal” transformer, each will incur a certain amount of energy loss, mainly that which is converted to heat. Methods of removing this… Read more

Nov 28, 2010 | Edvard

Transformer Cooling Classes

Should You Invest in Solar Power?

Tips and tricks on how to harvest better Solar power is quickly gaining popularity all over the globe. It is growing at a rate of 2% per year, and if the figures continue to… Read more

Nov 27, 2010 | Edvard


Electrical Power System Overcurrents

Serving to loads Electrical power systems must be designed to serve  a variety of loads safely and reliably. Effective  control of short-circuit current, or fault current as  it is commonly called, is a major… Read more

Nov 27, 2010 | Edvard

Megger Tests

Condition of electrical insulation The insulation resistance meter test method for determining the condition of electrical insulation has been widely used for many years as a general nondestructive test method. A serious limitation of… Read more

Nov 26, 2010 | Edvard


Harmonic Distortion

Harmonic distortion is caused by nonlinear devices in the power system. A nonlinear device is one in which the current is not proportional to the applied voltage. Figure 1 illustrates this concept by the… Read more

Nov 23, 2010 | Edvard


Battery Monitoring And Maintenance

Backup system reliability // Battery monitoring has become a very popular topic, and many companies have either purchased equipment or are in the process of evaluating these systems. This paper discusses why monitoring is… Read more

Nov 21, 2010 | Edvard

Battery Monitoring And Maintenance

The Need for Reactive Power Compensation

Reactive Power Compensation Except in a very few special situations, electrical energy is generated, transmitted, distributed, and utilized as alternating current (AC). However, alternating current has several distinct disadvantages. One of these is the… Read more

Nov 19, 2010 | Edvard

Power Factor Correction

ABB – 145kV Compact indoor substation with Disconnecting CB

Turnkey 145 kV S/S project for Borlänge Energi, Sweden, emphasizing the advantages of ABB Disconnecting Circuit Breakers. Small footprint enables indoor air insulated Switchgear solutions, increasing the power substation availability and reliability for the… Read more

Nov 15, 2010 | Edvard

Distance Relays

Distance relay applications Distance relays respond to the voltage and current, i.e., the impedance, at the relay location. The impedance per mile is fairly constant so these relays respond to the distance between the… Read more

Nov 12, 2010 | Edvard

Distance relays

Gas-Insulated Substations – GIS

Superior Dielectric Gas A gas-insulated substation (GIS) uses a superior dielectric gas, SF6, at moderate pressure for phase-tophase and phase-to-ground insulation. The high voltage conductors, circuit breaker interrupters, switches, current transformers, and voltage transformers… Read more

Nov 10, 2010 | Edvard

Gas-Insulated Substations - GIS
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