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Technical Articles

What Do Wind Systems Cost?

A small turbine can cost anywhere from $3,000 to $35,000 installed, depending on size, application, and service agreements with the manufacturer. (The American Wind Energy Association [AWEA] says a typical… Read more

Jan 18, 2011 | Wind Power

What Do Wind Systems Cost?

What Are Partial Discharges On Cast Resin Transformers?

Partial discharges are electrical discharges occuring in insulating materials. The electrical discharge’s path only spans part of the insulating distance separating the conductors. The problem of partial discharges, whilst not… Read more

Jan 17, 2011 | Transformers

Trihal transformer (IP00; IP31)

Oxidation Of Conductors

High-resistance oxides form very quickly on aluminum and copper conductors expose to air. Once the oxides are stabilized, they prevent further oxidation of the parent metal; however, due to this… Read more

Jan 16, 2011 | Cables

Oxidation Of Conductors

Information flow in the human-machine interface

Operators play an important part in the human-machine dialogue.They must use the information they have to perform actions that make the machines and installations run properly without endangering safety and… Read more

Jan 15, 2011 | Industrial Automation

Information flow in the human-machine interface

Security for Substation Communications

Until recently the term “security,” when applied to SCADA communication systems, meant only the process of ensuring message integrity in the face of electrical noise and other disturbances to the… Read more

Jan 13, 2011 | Power Substation

Security for Substation Communications

Gas-Insulated Transmission Line – GIL

The gas-insulated transmission line (GIL) is a system for the transmission of electricity at high power ratings over long distances. In cases where overhead lines are not possible, the GIL… Read more

Jan 12, 2011 | High Voltage

Gas-Insulated Transmission Line - GIL

SCADA Security Attacks

SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes, examples of which are transmission of electricity, transportation of gas and oil in pipelines, water distribution, traffic lights, and other… Read more

Jan 10, 2011 | SCADA

SCADA Security Attacks

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

There are many parameters that have an effect on the voltages in and around the substation area. Since voltages are site-dependent, it is impossible to design one grounding system that… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | Power Substation

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

Relationship Between Earthquakes And Substations

To secure and protect substation equipment from damage due to a seismic event, the relationship between earthquakes and substation components must first be understood. Earthquakes occur when there is a… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | Power Substation

Earthquakes And Substations