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Security for Substation Communications

Until recently the term “security,” when applied to SCADA communication systems, meant only the process of ensuring message integrity in the face of electrical noise and other disturbances to the… Read more

Jan 13, 2011 | Power Substation

Security for Substation Communications

Gas-Insulated Transmission Line – GIL

The gas-insulated transmission line (GIL) is a system for the transmission of electricity at high power ratings over long distances. In cases where overhead lines are not possible, the GIL… Read more

Jan 12, 2011 | High Voltage

Gas-Insulated Transmission Line - GIL

SCADA Security Attacks

SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes, examples of which are transmission of electricity, transportation of gas and oil in pipelines, water distribution, traffic lights, and other… Read more

Jan 10, 2011 | SCADA

SCADA Security Attacks

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

There are many parameters that have an effect on the voltages in and around the substation area. Since voltages are site-dependent, it is impossible to design one grounding system that… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | Power Substation

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

Relationship Between Earthquakes And Substations

To secure and protect substation equipment from damage due to a seismic event, the relationship between earthquakes and substation components must first be understood. Earthquakes occur when there is a… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | Power Substation

Earthquakes And Substations

Renewables And The Impact On Environment

Alternative energy sources, especially with regard to air emissions. The likely life-cycle emissions (taking into account fuel cultivation, harvesting, collection, transportation and processing, as well as power plant construction, operation… Read more

Jan 08, 2011 | Environment

NEMA TP1 Energy Efficiency Standard

Most commercial and industrial facilities require several low-voltage transformers to decrease the voltage received from the utility to the voltages used by various loads such as lighting, computers and other… Read more

Jan 08, 2011 | Energy Efficency

NEMA TP1 Energy Efficiency Standard

Solar Energy And Silver

The solar industry isn’t the largest consumer of silver, but it is a growing market that could give silver producers a boost. Most of the markets that silver serves follow… Read more

Jan 07, 2011 | Solar Power

Solar Energy And Silver

Transformer Losses Standards

Unlike many countries around the world, Europe has no mandatory standard on energy efficiency of distribution transformers. The two main documents which describe losses in transformers are: the European Standard… Read more

Jan 07, 2011 | Transformers

Transformer Losses Standards


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