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The Need for Reactive Power Compensation

Except in a very few special situations, electrical energy is generated, transmitted, distributed, and utilized as alternating current (AC). However, alternating current has several distinct disadvantages. One of these is… Read more

Nov 19, 2010 | Energy and Power

Power Factor Correction

Distance Relays

Distance relays respond to the voltage and current, i.e., the impedance, at the relay location. The impedance per mile is fairly constant so these relays respond to the distance between… Read more

Nov 12, 2010 | Protection

Distance relays

Gas-Insulated Substations – GIS

A gas-insulated substation (GIS) uses a superior dielectric gas, SF6, at moderate pressure for phase-tophase and phase-to-ground insulation. The high voltage conductors, circuit breaker interrupters, switches, current transformers, and voltage… Read more

Nov 10, 2010 | High Voltage

Gas-Insulated Substations - GIS

Emergency lights

Indepandant emergency supply Many buildings must have some form of emergency lighting to come on if the electric supply to the ordinary lights fails. BS 5266: Emergency lighting, BS EN… Read more

Nov 10, 2010 | Lighting

Emergency lights

Oil-Filled, Inert-Gas System

A positive seal of the transformer oil may be provided by an inert-gas system. Here, the tank is slightly pressurized by an inert gas such as nitrogen. The main tank… Read more

Nov 08, 2010 | Transformers

Oil transformer

What is the cost of electricity?

Electrification in the early 20th century dramatically improved productivity and increased the well-being of the industrialized world. No longer a luxury – now a necessity – electricity powers the machinery,… Read more

Nov 02, 2010 | Energy and Power

Cost Of Electricity

Short-Circuit Electrical Currents

A short circuit is one of the major incidents affecting electrical systems. The consequences are often serious, if not dramatic: Although short circuits are less and less likely to occur… Read more

Oct 28, 2010 | Energy and Power

Short-circuit current diagram
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