Hi-Pot test is a contraction for high potential HV testing.
Hi-Pot test is a contraction for high potential HV testing.

Hipot Test is short name of high potential (high voltage) Test and it is also known as Dielectric Withstand Test. A hipot test checks for good isolation.”

Hipot test makes surety of no current will flow from one point to another point.

Hipot test is the opposite of a continuity test.

Continuity Test checks surety of current flows easily from one point to another point while Hipot Test checks surety of current would not flow from one point to another point (and turn up the voltage really high just to make sure no current will flow).


Importance of HIPOT Testing

The hipot test is a nondestructive test that determines the adequacy of electrical insulation for the normally occurring over voltage transient. This is a high-voltage test that is applied to all devices for a specific time in order to ensure that the insulation is not marginal.

Hipot tests are helpful in finding nicked or crushed insulation, stray wire strands or braided shielding, conductive or corrosive contaminants around the conductors, terminal spacing problems, and tolerance errors in cables. Inadequate creepage and clearance distances introduced during the manufacturing process.


The production-line hipot test, however, is a test of the manufacturing process to determine whether the construction of a production unit is about the same as the construction of the unit that was subjected to type testing. Some of the process failures that can be detected by a production-line hipot test include, for example, a transformer wound in such a way that creepage and clearance have been reduced.

Such a failure could result from a new operator in the winding department.

HIPOT test is applied after tests such as fault condition, humidity, and vibration to determine whether any degradation has taken place.

Other examples include identifying a pinhole defect in insulation or finding an enlarged solder footprint.
As per IEC 60950, The Basic test Voltage for  Hipot test is the 2X (Operating Voltage) + 1000 V
The reason for using 1000 V as part of the basic formula is that the insulation in any product can be subjected to normal day-to-day transient over voltages.

Experiments and research have shown that these over voltages can be as high as 1000 V.

Video: HIPOT Test After Repair Generator


Test method for HIPOT Test

Hipot testers usually connect one side of the supply to safety ground (Earth ground). The other side of the supply is connected to the conductor being tested. With the supply connected like this there are two places a given conductor can be connected: high voltage or ground.

When you have more than two contacts to be hipot tested you connect one contact to high voltage and connect all other contacts to ground. Testing a contact in this fashion makes sure it is isolated from all other contacts.

If the insulation between the two is adequate, then the application of a large voltage difference between the two conductors separated by the insulator would result in the flow of a very small current. Although this small current is acceptable, no breakdown of either the air insulation or the solid insulation should take place. Therefore, the current of interest is the current that is the result of a partial discharge or breakdown, rather than the current due to capacitive coupling.

Time Duration for HIPOT Test

The test duration must be in accordance with the safety standard being used. The test time for most standards, including products covered under IEC 60950, is 1 minute.

A typical rule of thumb is 110 to 120% of 2U + 1000 V for 1–2 seconds.

Current Setting for HIPOT Test

Most modern hipot testers allow the user to set the current limit. However, if the actual leakage current of the product is known, then the hipot test current can be predicted.

The best way to identify the trip level is to test some product samples and establish an average hipot current. Once this has been achieved, then the leakage current trip level should be set to a slightly higher value than the average figure.

Another method of establishing the current trip level would be to use the following mathematical formula:  E(Hipot) / E(Leakage) = I(Hipot) / 2XI(Leakage)

The hipot tester current trip level should be set high enough to avoid nuisance failure related to leakage current and, at the same time, low enough not to overlook a true breakdown in insulation.

Test Voltage for HIPOT Test

The majority of safety standards allow the use of either ac or dc voltage for a hipot test.

When using ac test voltage, the insulation in question is being stressed most when the voltage is at its peak, i.e., either at the positive or negative peak of the sine wave.

Therefore, if we use dc test voltage, we ensure that the dc test voltage is under root 2 (or 1.414) times the ac test voltage, so the value of the dc voltage is equal to the ac voltage peaks.

For example, for a 1500-V-ac voltage, the equivalent dc voltage to produce the same amount of stress on the insulation would be 1500 x 1.414 or 2121 V dc.

Advantages and Disadvantages of use DC Voltage for Hipot Test

One of the advantages of using a dc test voltage is that the leakage current trip can be set to a much lower value than that of an ac test voltage. This would allow a manufacturer to filter those products that have marginal insulation, which would have been passed by an ac tester.

When using a dc hipot tester, the capacitors in the circuit could be highly charged and, therefore, a safe-discharge device or setup is needed. However, it is a good practice to always ensure that a product is discharged, regardless of the test voltage or its nature, before it is handled.

It applies the voltage gradually. By monitoring the current flow as voltages increase, an operator can detect a potential insulation breakdown before it occurs. A minor disadvantage of the dc hipot tester is that because dc test voltages are more difficult to generate, the cost of a dc tester may be slightly higher than that of an ac tester.

The main advantage of the dc test is DC Voltage does not produce harmful discharge as readily occur in AC.

It can be applied at higher levels without risk or injuring good insulation. This higher potential can literally “sweep-out” far more local defects.

The simple series circuit path of a local defect is more easily carbonized or reduced in resistance by the dc leakage current than by ac, and the lower the fault path resistance becomes, the more the leakage current increased, thus producing a “snow balling” effect which leads to the small visible dielectric puncture usually observed. Since the dc is free of capacitive division, it is more effective in picking out mechanical damage as well as inclusions or areas in the dielectric which have lower resistance.

Advantages and Disadvantages of use AC Voltage for Hipot Test

One of the advantages of an ac hipot test is that it can check both voltage polarities, whereas a dc test charges the insulation in only one polarity. This may become a concern for products that actually use ac voltage for their normal operation. The test setup and procedures are identical for both ac and dc hipot tests.

A minor disadvantage of the ac hipot tester is that if the circuit under test has large values of Y capacitors, then, depending on the current trip setting of the hipot tester, the ac tester could indicate a failure. Most safety standards allow the user to disconnect the Y capacitors prior to testing or, alternatively, to use a dc hipot tester.

The dc hipot tester would not indicate the failure of a unit even with high Y capacitors because the Y capacitors see the voltage but don’t pass any current.

Step for HIPOT Testing

  • Only electrically qualified workers may perform this testing.
  • Open circuit breakers or switches to isolate the circuit or Cable that will be hi-pot tested.
  • Confirm that all equipment or Cable that is not to be tested is isolated from the circuit under test.
  • The limited approach boundary for this hi-pot procedure at 1000 volts is 5 ft. (1.53m) so place barriers around the terminations of cables and equipment under test to prevent unqualified persons from crossing this boundary.
  • Connect the ground lead of the HIPOT Tester to a suitable building ground or grounding electrode conductor. Attach the high voltage lead to one of the isolated circuit phase conductors.
  • Switch on the HIPOT Tester. Set the meter to 1000 Volts or pre decide DC Voltage. Push the “Test” button on the meter and after one minute observe the resistance reading.  Record the reading for reference.
  • At the end of the one minute test, switch the HIPOT Tester from the high potential test mode to the voltage measuring mode to confirm that the circuit phase conductor and voltage of HIPOT Tester are now reading zero volts.
  • Repeat this test procedure for all circuit phase conductors testing each phase to ground and each phase to each phase.
  • When testing is completed disconnect the HIPOT Tester from the circuits under test and confirm that the circuits are clear to be re-connected and re-energized.
  • To PASS the unit or Cable under Test must be exposed to a minimum Stress of pre decide Voltage for 1 minute without any Indication of Breakdown. For Equipments with total area less than 0.1 m2, the insulation resistance shall not be less than 400 MΩ. For Equipment with total area larger than 0.1 m2 the measured insulation resistance times the area of the module shall not be less than 40 MΩ⋅m2.

Safety precautions during HIPOT Test

During a HIPOT Test, There may be at some risk so to minimize risk of injury from electrical shock make sure HIPOT equipment follows these guidelines:

  1. The total charge you can receive in a shock should not exceed 45 uC.
  2. The total hipot energy should not exceed 350 mJ.
  3. The total current should not exceed 5 mA peak (3.5 mA rms)
  4. The fault current should not stay on longer than 10 mS.
  5. If the tester doesn’t meet these requirements then make sure it has a safety interlock system that guarantees you cannot contact the cable while it is being hipot tested.

For Cable:

  1. Verify the correct operation of the safety circuits in the equipment every time you calibrate it.
  2. Don’t touch the cable during hipot testing.
  3. Allow the hipot testing to complete before removing the cable.
  4. Wear insulating gloves.
  5. Don’t allow children to use the equipment.
  6. If you have any electronic implants then don’t use the equipment.

About Author //

author-pic

Jignesh Parmar

jiguparmar - Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control) ,B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE),India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 13 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in "Electrical Mirror", "Electrical India", "Lighting India", "Industrial Electrix"(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

37 Comments


  1. hossein
    Aug 25, 2015

    hi,
    I need to the test sheet for hi pot test for 20 kv cable & bus duct and 6 kv motors.
    thank you


  2. vinod
    Aug 21, 2015

    Dear Sir,
    Pl suggest me for the voltage range apply for HV test for high rating UPS like 100kva to 600kva


  3. Chickenhawk
    Aug 12, 2015

    What settings do you set the Fluke Multimeter to? I’m trying to capture check for leakage and record the results in mA. Any help would be appreciated!


  4. karthick
    Jun 10, 2015

    If I get less value in IR test after hi-pot then before hi pot what could be the reason.


    • Manikandan
      Jun 28, 2015

      Usual problem, but still I am not cleared…If there is any acceptable leakage current value is there during Hi-pot test, please share with us.. In modern day test kit, we could find many options, 25mA, 50mA, 75mA… I heard, insulation should not get breakdown or kit should not trip. I kept in 25mA option and it is tripped, but same way I kept it in 100mA, and it is not tripped. I am sure it is less than 100mA. But I need to know what is the acceptable range of leakage current.


  5. anbu
    Apr 07, 2015

    Dear sir

    What are the drawbacks of injecting DC voltage( for testing purpose) in Gas Insulated Switchgear. what is the limitation.


  6. Surat
    Apr 06, 2015

    Dear Jignesh,
    If I need to test Hipot test with the product. Do we need to test Hipot test before Functional test or after Functional test? Why?


  7. Steve
    Mar 09, 2015

    Is there a conversion from DC microamps to AC microamps?


  8. jignesh panchal
    Feb 01, 2015

    Hello sir
    What is the difference between high voltage test and insulation resistance test

    And how class of equipment decide


    • RODEL VALENCIA
      Feb 08, 2015

      Dear Mr. Jignesh Parmar,
      We have a new AC Hipot equipment for our instrument transformers 5kv, 15kv, 35kv. My question: Is there a table of all different voltages of transformer and the voltages to apply to hipot transformer.


  9. Jonhny Magtulis
    Jan 15, 2015

    Thanks alot for this very usefull idea

  10. […] The DC HV 25kV Tester, Model No. PGK 25 manufactured by BAUR Germany. The test is applied only to cables covered with conductive layer over outer sheath. (Read more about Hipo Testing) […]


  11. Andhika
    Dec 18, 2014

    Dear Mr.Jigner,

    Nice info sir,
    If i want to do DC Hipot testing for panel 6 kv, this panel contains cable 6 kV, VCB, Busbar, PT, CT, Surge Absorber, and etc.
    Before perform hipot test for this panel, i’m open fuse on the PT and draw off VCB. Surge absorber, CT, and busbar still connecting to cable.
    is it right?
    I gave 13,5 kV for 10 mins and the leakage current is 500ms. Is it cause by i’m not disconnecting the surge absorber?


    • Seran raj.m
      Apr 18, 2015

      Nice work for engineer to learn.


  12. Aniel
    Nov 26, 2014

    Neatly explained, step by step. Nice job .Keep it up Jigneshji


  13. mohamed
    Nov 02, 2014

    Dear Jignesh,
    Please send me the details for Lightining Arrestor testing method and for the capacitor banks used in HV/MV ( 60KV/30KV) network and if you dont mind the all the test that shall be done in commissionning phase for power transformer, GIS, and LV switchgear

    thanks a lot


  14. Bhadresh Patel
    Oct 19, 2014

    Dear Jignesh,
    Please send me the details for Lightining Arrestor testing method and the Earth resistance value for LA ( Used for building protection). Also is it possible to have damage in Electrical lighting DB by lighting stricke or Surge form HT lines as we observed one HT fuse blown during lighting stricke and electrical burningh in LDB.


  15. Shaukat Ali Khan
    Sep 11, 2014

    JP, excellent! I had an Indian EE friend in America. He worked in Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra states of India before coming to America for M.S in EE. A very nice friend of mine then in mid1990’s. I know how the hi-pot test works and the setup. Please include the test equipment diagram in your paper. Also, I don’t see someone from your group side to be responding to the comments put out by the readers? Why is that? Another things is that your query down below like 6 x three = ? That’s 6 is in digit and three non-digit, could be questionable in some where down the line. It has to be all in digits, not?


    • Hemant
      Oct 26, 2014

      Shaukat Ali : 6 x Three types questions are to block spam programs imitating humans and flooding the website. Normally a spam is not supposed to recognize such thing, and will not be able to proceed further.


  16. James Mazarello
    Aug 29, 2014

    Dear Jigu,

    I want an insulation for instrumentation purpose from readily available insulation polymers that can be molded which has very low leakage in the range of femtoamps, I am basicaly interested in measuring current in that range, Operating voltage is in the range of 300Vdc to 1000v DC. what would be the best test in this range and which insulation can be used.


  17. aimee
    Jul 22, 2014

    Im curious to how you came up with the rule of thumb for the test voltage. I looked at the IEC spec and couldnt quite figure it out. please advise


  18. chandrshekar.g
    Jun 11, 2014

    Dear sir,

    pl send solar motar caulation excel sheat.


  19. Manuel Montiel
    Jun 09, 2014

    Your article of hipot is very good and easy to digest, I would like to contact you to ask some direction to solve an issue. We are seeing VSWR large spikes in coaxial at 2.5 GHz and wonder if the standard concept of a hipot can be applied by changing the frequency of the ac (60 GHz) to other frequency as the one of the VSWR, in the range of 2 – 8 GHz and if will be possible see the physical issue (sparks) in the conductor or overlap of dielectric or the shield. Based in our calculation we can correlate the periodicity in inches of the spikes


  20. rahimi
    Apr 14, 2014

    we have a cantractor and they wanna start this test according to iec60502-2 standard but this standard talk about cable. i wanna know procedure of hipot test for panel busbar


  21. rahimi
    Apr 14, 2014

    hi,i have a question?
    we want to start hipot test for panel busbar in sub station,how we do it?


  22. Himanshu Behera
    Mar 29, 2014

    purpose of fault indication and advantages.


  23. Palwinder Singh
    Jan 30, 2014

    If we use core balance current transformer for earth fault protection then do we need to connect S2 terminal of CBCT to the ground terminal .Please send me some pictures of circuit diagrams of cbct +efr for earth fault protection.


  24. AVINASH KUMAR
    Jan 15, 2014

    this website is very very helpful to electrical engineers………………………
    thank you,

  25. […] of a capacitor bank step. Overloads result in overheating which has an adverse effect on dielectric withstand and leads to premature capacitor aging. 2. Short CircuitA short-circuitis an internal or […]

  26. […] and phase-to-ground for one minute, in accordance with Table 100.1 below.3. Perform a dielectric withstand voltage test on each busway, phase-to-ground with phases not under test grounded, in accordance with […]

  27. […] a Megger Insulation Tester.Current flowing through this resistance is measured when performing a DC Hipot Test as shown in Figure 1.The combined inductance (L), series resistance (RS), capacitance (C) and […]


    • jayu
      Nov 07, 2012

      i see this web site its amazing & very useful for electrical engineer

  28. […] fault on two cablesA  common approach to test cable and determine insulation integrity is to use a Hi-pot test. In a hi-pot test, a DC voltage is applied for 5 to 15 min. IEEE-400 specifies that the hi-pot […]

  29. […] a localized ”puncture” of the insulating medium where the electrons flowed during breakdown. Dielectric strength comparison between materialsMaterial *Dielectric strength (kV/inch)Vacuum20Air20 to 75Porcelain40 […]

  30. […] IR Test are not intended to be useful in finding localized defects in the insulation as in a true HIPOT test, but rather give information on the quality of the bulk material used as the insulation.Even when […]

  31. […] it should resist current and keep the current in its path along the conductor.To understand insulation testing you really don’t need to go into the mathematics of electricity, but one simple equation – […]

  32. […] of the outstanding properties of SF6 making it desirable to use in power applications are:High dielectric strengthUnique arc-quenching abilityExcellent thermal stabilityGood thermal conductivityTopProperties Of SF6 […]

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