What is the difference between Bonding, Grounding and Earthing?
What is the difference between Bonding, Grounding and Earthing?

Content

1. Introduction
2. Bonding
3. Earthing
4. Grounding
5. Micro Difference between Earthing and Grounding
6. Illegal Practice of interchange Purpose of Grounding and earthing wire
7. Conclusion


Introduction

One of the most misunderstood and confused concept is difference between Bonding, Grounding and Earthing. Bonding is more clear word compare to Grounding and Earthing, but there is a micro difference between Grounding and Earhing.

Earthing and Grounding are actually different terms for expressing the same concept.
Ground or earth in a mains electrical wiring system is a conductor that provides a low impedance path to the earth to prevent hazardous voltages from appearing on equipment. Earthing is more commonly used in Britain, European and most of the commonwealth countries standards (IEC, IS), while Grounding is the word used in North American standards (NEC, IEEE, ANSI, UL).

The earthing connection to switchboard rear door (metal parts)
The earthing connection to switchboard rear door (metal parts)

We understand that Earthing and Grounding are necessary and have an idea how to do it but we don’t have crystal clear concept for that. We need to understand that there are really two separate things we are doing for same purpose that we call Grounding or Earthing. The Earthing is to reference our electrical source to earth (usually via connection to some kind of rod driven into the earth or some other metal that has direct contact with the earth).

The grounded circuits of machines need to have an effective return path from the machines to the power source in order to function properly (Here by Neutral Circuit).

In addition, non-current-carrying metallic components in a System, such as equipment cabinets, enclosures, and structural steel, need to be electrically interconnected and earthed properly so voltage potential cannot exist between them. However, troubles can arise when terms like “bonding”, “grounding”, and “earthing” are interchanged or confused in certain situations.

In TN Type Power Distribution System, in US NEC (and possibly other) usage: Equipment is earthed to pass fault Current and to trip the protective device without electrifying the device enclosure. Neutral is the current return path for phase. These Earthing conductor and Neutral conductor are connected together and earthed at the distribution panel and also at the street, but the intent is that no current flow on earthed ground, except during momentary fault conditions.

Here we may say that Earthing and grounding are nearly same by practice.

But In the TT Type Power Distribution System (in India) Neutral is only earthed (here it is actually called Grounding) at distribution source (at distribution transformer) and Four wires (Neutral and Three Phase) are distributed to consumer. While at consumer side all electrical equipment body are connected and earthed at consumer premises (here it is called Earthing).

Consumer has no any permission to mix Neutral with earth at his premises here earthing and grounding is the different by practice.

In both above case Earthing and Grounding are used for the same Purpose. Let’s try to understand this terminology one by one.

Go to Content ↑


Bonding

Bonding is simply the act of joining two electrical conductors together. These may be two wires, a wire and a pipe, or these may be two Equipments. Bonding has to be done by connecting of all the metal parts that are not supposed to be carrying current during normal operations to bringing them to the same electrical potential.

Bonding ensures that these two things which are bonded will be at the same electrical potential. That means we would not get electricity building up in one equipment or between two different equipment. No current flow can take place between two bonded bodies because they have the same potential.

Bonding itself, does not protect anything. However, if one of those boxes is earthed there can be no electrical energy build-up. If the grounded box is bonded to the other box, the other box is also at zero electrical potential.

It protects equipment and person by reducing current flow between pieces of equipment at different potentials.

The primary reason for bonding is personnel safety, so someone touching two pieces of equipment at the same time does not receive a shock by becoming the path of equalization if they happen to be at different potentials. The Second reason has to do with what happens if Phase conductor may be touched an external metal part.

The bonding helps to create a low impedance path back to the source. This will force a large current to flow, which in turn will cause the breaker to trip.

In other words, bonding is there to allow a breaker to trip and thereby to terminate a fault.

Typical bonding connection
Typical bonding connection

Bonding to electrical earth is used extensively to ensure that all conductors (person, surface and product) are at the same electrical potential. When all conductors are at the same potential no discharge can occur.

Go to Content ↑


Earthing

Earthing means connecting the dead part (it means the part which does not carries current under normal condition) to the earth for example electrical equipment’s frames, enclosures, supports etc.

The purpose of earthing is to minimize the risk of receiving an electric shock if touching metal parts when a fault is present. Generally green wire is used for this as a nomenclature.

Under fault conditions the non-current carrying metal parts of an electrical installation such as frames, enclosures, supports, fencing etc. may attain high potential with respect to ground so that any person or stray animal touching these or approaching these will be subjected to potential difference which may result in the flow of a current through the body of the person or the animal of such a value as may prove fatal.

To avoid this non-current carrying metal parts of the electrical system are connected to the general mass of earth by means of an earthing system comprising of earth conductors to conduct the fault currents safely to the ground.

Earthing has been accomplished through bonding of a metallic system to earth. It is normally achieved by inserting ground rods or other electrodes deep inside earth.

Earthing is to ensure safety or Protection of electrical equipment and Human by discharging the electrical energy to the earth.

Go to Content ↑


Grounding

Grounding means connecting the live part (it means the part which carries current under normal condition) to the earth for example neutral of power transformer. It is done for the protections of power system equipment and to provide an effective return path from the machine to the power source.

For example grounding of neutral point of a star connected transformer.

Grounding refers the current carrying part of the system such as neutral (of the transformer or generator).

Because of lightening, line surges or unintentional contact with other high voltage lines, dangerously high voltages can develop in the electrical distribution system wires. Grounding provides a safe, alternate path around the electrical system of your house thus minimizing damage from such occurrences.

Generally Black wire is used for this as a nomenclature.

All electrical/electronic circuits (AC & DC) need a reference potential (zero volts) which is called ground in order to make possible the current flow from generator to load. Ground is May or May not be earthed. In Electrical Power distribution it is either earthed at distribution Point or at Consumer end but it is not earthed in Automobile( for instance all vehicles’ electrical circuits have ground connected to the chassis and metallic body that are insulated from earth through tires).

There may exist a neutral to ground voltage due to voltage drop in the wiring, thus neutral does not necessarily have to be at ground potential.

Cant see this video? Click here to watch it on Youtube.

In a properly balanced system, the phase currents balance each other, so that the total neutral current is also zero. For individual systems, this is not completely possible, but we strive to come close in aggregate.

This balancing allows maximum efficiency of the distribution transformer’s secondary winding.

Go to Content ↑


Micro Difference between earthing and Grounding

There is no major difference between earthing and Grounding, both means “Connecting an electrical circuit or device to the Earth. This serves various purposes like to drain away unwanted currents, to provide a reference voltage for circuits needing one, to lead lightning away from delicate equipment.

Even though there is a micro difference between grounding and earthing:


1. Difference in Terminology

In USA term Grounding is used but in UK term Earthing is used.


2. Balancing the Load Vs Safety

Ground is a source for unwanted currents and also as a return path for main current some times. While earthing is done not for return path but only for protection of delicate equipments. It is an alternate low resistance path for current.

When we take out the neutral for a three phase unbalanced connection and send it to ground, it is called grounding. Grounding is done to balance unbalanced load. While earthing is used between the equipment and earth pit so as to avoid electrical shock and equipment damage.


3. Equipment Protection Vs Human Safety

Earthing is to protect the circuit elements whenever high voltage is passed by thunders or by any other sources while Grounding is the common point in the circuit to maintain the voltage levels.

Earth is used for the safety of the human body in fault conditions while Grounding (As neutral earth) is used for the protection of equipment. Earthing is a preventive measure while Grounding is just a return path.

The ground conductor provides a return path for fault current when a phase conductor accidentally comes in contact with a grounded object. This is a safety feature of the wiring system and we would never expect to see grounding conductor current flow during normal operation.

IMPORTANT: Do not Ground the neutral second time when It is grounded either at Distribution Transformer or at Main service panel of Consumer end. Grounding act as neutral. But neutral cannot act as ground.


4. System Zero Potential Vs Circuit Zero Potential

Earthing and Grounding both is refer to zero potential,  but the system connected to zero potential is differ than Equipment connected to zero potential .If a neutral point of a generator or transformer is connected to zero potential then it is known as grounding.

At the same time if the body of the transformer or generator is connected to zero potential then it is known as earthing.

The term “Earthing means that the circuit is physically connected to the ground and it is Zero Volt Potential to the Ground (Earth) but in case of “Grounding” the circuit is not physically connected to ground, but its potential is zero(where the currents are algebraically zero) with respect to other point, which is also known as “Virtual Grounding”.

Earth having zero potential whereas neutral may have some potential. That means neutral does not always have zero potential with respect to ground. In earthing we have Zero Volt potential references to the earth while in grounding we have local Zero Volt potential reference to circuit. When we connect two different Power circuits in power distribution system, we want to have the same Zero Volt reference so we connect them and grounds together.

This common reference might be different from the earth potential.

Go to Content ↑

Illegal Practice of interchange Purpose of Grounding and earthing wire

Neutral wire in grid connections is mandatory for safety. Imagine a person from 4th floor in a building uses Earth wire (which is earthed in the basement at Basement) as neutral to power his lights. Another Person from 2nd floor has a normal setup and uses neutral for the same purpose. Neutral wire is also earthed at the ground level (as per USA practice Neutral is Grounded (earthed) at Building and as per Indian Practice it is Grounded (earthed) at Distribution Transformer).

However, ground wire (Neutral wire) has a much lower electrical resistance than Earth Wire (Earthing) which results in a difference of electrical potential (i.e. voltage) between them. This voltage is quite a hazard for anyone touching a Earth wire (Metal Body of Equipment) as it may have several tens of volts.

The second issue is legality. Using ground wire instead of neutral makes you an energy thief as the meter uses only the Phase and neutral for recording your energy consumption. Many Consumers make energy theft by using Earthing wire as a Neutral wire in an Energy meter.

Go to Content ↑

Conclusion

Ground is a source for unwanted currents and also as a return path for main current. While earthing is done not for return path but only for protection of delicate equipments. It is an alternate low resistance path for current.

Earth is used for the safety of the human body in fault conditions while Grounding (As neutral earth) is used for the protection of equipment.

Go to Content ↑

About Author //

author-pic

Jignesh Parmar

jiguparmar - Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control) ,B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE),India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 13 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in "Electrical Mirror", "Electrical India", "Lighting India", "Industrial Electrix"(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

29 Comments


  1. EMIL
    Aug 15, 2015

    Excelent this post,congrat…to all.
    Good job .


  2. sivakumar palani
    May 30, 2015

    Dear sir,

    Is grounding wire a requirement even for the light fittings which has got metal to metal contact with the ships structure.


  3. AbduRahman Yusuf
    Apr 26, 2015

    Let me firstly thank Engr. Jignesh Parmar.

    Then, how best can we sum up single phase loads (say 30 x 150W SPN @ 220V) in a TPN @ 400V Distribution Board for the purpose of calculating/determining TPN DB”s main CB and its 4-Core feeder Cable?


  4. murat
    Apr 14, 2015

    Jignesh Parmar! Your articles make a difference for the people following this site. Thank you for your contributions.


  5. Ahmed
    Feb 26, 2015

    Great Information… thanks


  6. Ashokkumar
    Feb 03, 2015

    1.Differ the earth connection to main earth grid via by exothermic welding and normal earth connection.
    2.We are having more tanks and vessels and pumps on it earthing all via Earth bar is better or direct connection to earth grid is better.


  7. fady samy
    Oct 21, 2014

    why do always keep 6 mt separate distance between earth pits???


  8. ATAKAN CANER
    Oct 16, 2014

    Please see our patented high voltage protection VoltCare. VoltCare is a Low voltage lightning arrester without discharge grounding line. You can find more details on http://www.voltcare.net .


  9. T.Ch.H.Rao
    Oct 16, 2014

    excellent article

  10. […] topic of system grounding is extremely important, as it affects the susceptibility of the system to voltage transients, […]


  11. sajid
    Sep 30, 2014

    Dear Sir

    i have a question which software we can use for designing earthing system.

    if you have any please share at portal also help to understand the designing parameters for earthing of a system.


  12. Amit kumar lenka
    Sep 22, 2014

    clear answer sir

  13. […] EGC is the most important conductor in an electrical system as its function is electrical […]


  14. ravi chandra
    Feb 23, 2014

    Wonderful explanation sir. Actually always a confusion existed, but now my thoughts are clear. Thank you so much for the write up. Its worth reading :)

  15. […] additional requirements may have to be considered.Equipotential bonding conductors (in future: protective bonding conductors) Equipotential bonding conductors should, as long as they fulfil a protective function, be labelled […]

  16. […] earth plate gives the number of earth pits required.There is no general rule to calculate the exact number of earth pits and size of earthing strip, but discharging of leakage current is certainly dependent on the cross […]

  17. […] equipment may now be connected up and cable joints made.In particular one must confirm that the earthing of the equipment has been carried out using the recommended cross-section of material and satisfactory […]


  18. krishnajirao
    Mar 19, 2013

    After going through the article, I find there is non-congruence in the three terms.grounding,earthing and bonding.If grounding is not done then earthing becomes bonding! Is it right?
    Through earthing and bonding fault current will flow?
    What is the purpose of grounding and grounding electrodes if we provide an earth bus from the neutral point to all the enclosures through out the system?

  19. […] actuated by discharging a spring mechanism to provide the ‘‘high-speed’’ operation.The grounding switch operates to provide a deliberate ground fault on one phase of the high-voltage bus supplying […]

  20. […] Inspect physical and mechanical condition of busway system3. Inspect anchorage, alignment, and grounding.4. Verify correct connection in accordance with single-line diagram.5. Inspect bolted electrical […]

  21. […] ‘Ufer’ grounds (named after the person who was instrumental in the development of this type of grounding practice) has significantly increased in recent years. Ufer grounds utilize the concrete foundation of a […]

  22. […] supplies with adverse grounding conditions, in TT supplies, for protective disconnection in IT or impedance-grounded networks. Attention has to be paid that the neutral pole closes before or at the same time as the other […]


  23. Magnito
    Oct 14, 2012

    Which is a more effective way for substation earthing? I work in a plant were all the old substations have earth pits but most of the morden ones multiple earth rods around the substation. I am new in the field. Which one is a much better my arrangement?

  24. […] operations for maintenance purposes.The first step in designing a power substation is to design an earthing and bonding system.Go to Content ↑ Earthing and BondingThe function of an earthing and bonding system is to provide […]


  25. richxtlc
    Sep 27, 2012

    The terms grounding and bonding have been misused for may years in the US. The problem has been addressed by the NEC to clarify it.

    In the US the grounding of the electrical system is accomplished at two point, at the source transformer, (neutral point on a 3-phase wye connected winding or at the midpoint of a single-phase transformer for local distribution and at the first disconnecting device at the customer’s premise. The earth ground is connected to a ground rod or other grounding electrode and then it is tied to the grounded conductor (neutral) in the first disconnecting device.

    This is done to accomplish two things, one to provide a low impedance path back to the source for unbalanced and fault currents and in the event the grounded conductor opens prior to the first disconnecting device the path still exists through ground to return to the source.

    The bonding of all non-current carrying metallic parts provides a low impedance path to the first disconnecting device to provide sufficient current to operate the OCPD and to connect to the grounded conductor (neutral) to return to the source.

    The use of earth as the sole means for fault current return may not allow sufficient current to flow as the impedance can vary greatly between tow points. The impedance of the earth can vary with the moisture content, the type of soil (sand, loam, gravel) and temperature. The temperature and moisture can vary with the changes in seasons. it can therefore provide an inconsistent impedance between the fault and the source.

    The article does clarify the differences between the North American and European methods and clarifies the terms used in each except as noted above.


  26. Al Warner
    Sep 27, 2012

    Edi – With all due respect, there are many technical errors with respect to grounding practices in the USA, etc. I would be happy to offer comment & corrections if either you or Jiguparmar would send me an unsecured PDF of this article that I could edit with Adobe Acrobat 8 Standard.

    Al


    • Edvard
      Sep 27, 2012

      Hi Al,

      Thanks for the commenting. Can you name mistakes one by one here in the comment field? Article is already published, so editing is not very recommended, but still possible only with permission of author Jignesh Parmar.

      However you can create PDF using button PDF below article title.

      I’d love to see your comments to continue the discussion.


    • jiguparmar
      Sep 27, 2012

      Thanks richxtlc,

      At some angle agree with You. As per my view, As per USA practice Grounding and Earthing make combined so Can we say that for this type of Practice Earthing and Grounding are similar word for that. and I think there is no problem of Neutral Floating in this practice .

      I write this Article on the base of Indian Practice here Earthing and Grounding is totally separate from its source to user end and don’t mix neutral with earth.

      Can you agree for the statement that Neutral earthing to earth is called “Grounding” and Equipment Earhitng to the earth is called “Earthing” (Not Grounding).

      Waiting for your Reply.


      • richxtlc
        Sep 28, 2012

        In the sense that we are talking about using the European or IEC terminology, you are correct. In the US we only tie the neutral (grounded conducfor) to ground at the source transformer and at the customer’s first disconnecting device (in most cases). We use an equipment grounding conductor (either the connecting conduit, bare copper wire, or green or green with yellow stripe) to connect the non-current carrying metal casing to the ground bus in the first disconnect device.

        We normally never have more that one ground in any circuit as this would create problems with getting sufficient current to flow to operate the OCPD.

        There are instances were we have ungrounded wye circuits to prevent operation of the OCPD for a single phase-to-ground fault. But, the protective grounding of the equipment is stilled connected in the way described above.

Leave a Comment

Tell us what you're thinking... we care about your opinion!
and oh, not to forget - if you want a picture to show with your comment, go get a free Gravatar!

seven × three =

Get PDF