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Monthly Archive for: «July, 2011»

DC to AC Transfer – Measurement

General transfer capability is essential to the measurement of voltage, current, power, and energy. The standard cell, the unit of voltage which it preserves, and the unit of current derived from it in combination with… Read more

Jul 30, 2011 | Edvard

AC motors – Protection against short circuits

Every electric motor has operating limits. Overshooting these limits will eventually destroy it and the systems it drives, the immediate effect being operating shutdown and losses. A short circuit is a direct contact between two… Read more

Jul 29, 2011 | Edvard

GV2-L magnetic circuit breaker (Schneider Electric) and its graphic symbol

Resistive heating explained in details

Whenever an electric current flows through a material that has some resistance (i.e., anything but a superconductor), it creates heat. This resistive heating is the result of “friction,” as created by microscopic phenomena such as… Read more

Jul 27, 2011 | Edvard

Materials with magnetic properties

All materials have magnetic properties. These characteristic properties may be divided into five groups as follows: Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic Antiferromagnetic Ferrimagnetic Only ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials have properties which are useful in practical applications. Ferromagnetic… Read more

Jul 26, 2011 | Edvard

Fig. 3.2 Magnetization and hysteresis curves

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 2

Continued from How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 1 » Read here Stuxnet is a computer worm designed to infect Siemens SIMATIC WinCC and S7 PLC products, either installed as part of a PCS… Read more

Jul 23, 2011 | Edvard

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 1

The Stuxnet worm is a sophisticated piece of computer malware designed to sabotage industrial processes controlled by Siemens SIMATIC WinCC and PCS 7 control systems. The worm used both known and previously unknown vulnerabilities to… Read more

Jul 20, 2011 | Edvard

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads

Visibility and visual performance of good lighting

Human beings need to be informed about their surroundings in order to perform their activities in an easy and harmless fashion. Most information about the environment reaches human beings through their eyes. Therefore, it is… Read more

Jul 18, 2011 | Edvard

Visibility and visual performance of good lighting

What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need?

The size of the wind turbine you need depends on your application. Small turbines range in size from 20 watts to 100 kilowatts. The smaller or “micro” (20–500-watt) turbines are used in a variety of… Read more

Jul 16, 2011 | Edvard

What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need?

GIS vs AIS – Life cycle assessment

In order to ensure the future supply of electricity we require sustainable concepts that preserve resources and do not harm our environment. Humankind needs a reliable and secure power supply that is also environmentally friendly… Read more

Jul 14, 2011 | Edvard

gis-vs-ais-life-cycle-assessment

Fire Protection Measures

The measures to mitigate or lessen fire hazards are normally called “fire protection measures”. The National Fire Protection Association NFPA (U.S. organization charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and requirements for fire prevention and… Read more

Jul 13, 2011 | Edvard

Fire Protection Measures

Power Fuses in High Voltage

Power fuses are a generally accepted means of protecting power transformers in distribution substations. The primary purpose of a power fuse is to provide interruption of permanent faults. Fusing is an economical alternative to circuit… Read more

Jul 11, 2011 | Edvard

power-fuses-in-high-voltage

Long history of solar energy

As with hydropower, solar energy has a long history. Many pre-historic cultures used it to warm their dwellings, dry their clothes, and cure their food. The importance of solar energy was so great that most… Read more

Jul 10, 2011 | Edvard

Figure 1: Mesa Verde cliff dwellings


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