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Monthly Archive for: «July, 2011»

Energy and Power

DC to AC Transfer – Measurement

General transfer capability is essential to the measurement of voltage, current, power, and energy. The standard cell, the unit of voltage which it preserves, and the unit of current derived… Read more

Jul 30, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Electric Motor

AC motors – Protection against short circuits

Every electric motor has operating limits. Overshooting these limits will eventually destroy it and the systems it drives, the immediate effect being operating shutdown and losses. A short circuit is… Read more

Jul 29, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

GV2-L magnetic circuit breaker (Schneider Electric) and its graphic symbol
Energy and Power

Resistive heating explained in details

Whenever an electric current flows through a material that has some resistance (i.e., anything but a superconductor), it creates heat. This resistive heating is the result of “friction,” as created… Read more

Jul 27, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Energy and Power

Materials with magnetic properties

All materials have magnetic properties. These characteristic properties may be divided into five groups as follows: Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic Antiferromagnetic Ferrimagnetic Only ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials have properties which are… Read more

Jul 26, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Fig. 3.2 Magnetization and hysteresis curves
Industrial Automation

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 2

Continued from How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 1 » Read here Stuxnet is a computer worm designed to infect Siemens SIMATIC WinCC and S7 PLC products, either installed… Read more

Jul 23, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads
Industrial Automation

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 1

The Stuxnet worm is a sophisticated piece of computer malware designed to sabotage industrial processes controlled by Siemens SIMATIC WinCC and PCS 7 control systems. The worm used both known… Read more

Jul 20, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads

Visibility and visual performance of good lighting

Human beings need to be informed about their surroundings in order to perform their activities in an easy and harmless fashion. Most information about the environment reaches human beings through… Read more

Jul 18, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Visibility and visual performance of good lighting
Wind Power

What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need?

The size of the wind turbine you need depends on your application. Small turbines range in size from 20 watts to 100 kilowatts. The smaller or “micro” (20–500-watt) turbines are… Read more

Jul 16, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need?
High Voltage

GIS vs AIS – Life cycle assessment

In order to ensure the future supply of electricity we require sustainable concepts that preserve resources and do not harm our environment. Humankind needs a reliable and secure power supply… Read more

Jul 14, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Energy and Power

Fire Protection Measures

The measures to mitigate or lessen fire hazards are normally called “fire protection measures”. The National Fire Protection Association NFPA (U.S. organization charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and… Read more

Jul 13, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Fire Protection Measures
High Voltage

Power Fuses in High Voltage

Power fuses are a generally accepted means of protecting power transformers in distribution substations. The primary purpose of a power fuse is to provide interruption of permanent faults. Fusing is… Read more

Jul 11, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Solar Power

Long history of solar energy

As with hydropower, solar energy has a long history. Many pre-historic cultures used it to warm their dwellings, dry their clothes, and cure their food. The importance of solar energy… Read more

Jul 10, 2011 | By Edvard Csanyi

Figure 1: Mesa Verde cliff dwellings

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