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Monthly Archive for: «November, 2012»

Energy and Power

Arrangements of LV Utility Distribution Networks

In European countries the standard 3-phase 4-wire distribution voltage level is 230/400 V. Many countries are currently converting their LV systems to the latest IEC standard of 230/400 V nominal… Read more

Nov 30, 2012 | By Edvard

Arrangements of LV Utility Distribution Networks
Protection

The Purpose Of Transformer Gas Relay

The transformer gas relay is a protective device installed on the top of oil-filled transformers. It performs two functions. It detects the slow accumulation of gases, providing an alarm after… Read more

Nov 29, 2012 | By Edvard

The Purpose Of Transformer Gas Relay
Energy and Power

How to Predict Life Span of the Switchgear?

The life span of switchgear basically depends on the size of the load and the number of switching cycles. Instead of a time span, with electromechanical switchgear reference is usually… Read more

Nov 28, 2012 | By Edvard

How to Predict Life Span of the Switchgear?
Cables

Inspection and Test Procedures for LV Cables

Visual and Mechanical Inspection Electrical Tests Test Values TABLE 100.12 – US Standard Fasteners – Bolt-Torque Values for Electrical Connections Compare cable data with drawings and specifications. Inspect exposed sections… Read more

Nov 27, 2012 | By Edvard

Inspection and Test Procedures for LV Cables
Protection

Surge Protection for Frequency Converters

In principle a frequency converter consists of a rectifier, a d.c. link converter, an inverter and of the control electronics (Figure 1 above). At the input of the inverter the… Read more

Nov 26, 2012 | By Edvard

Schematic diagram of a frequency converter
Energy and Power

Purpose of Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCBs)

Miniature circuit breakers (MCB) are primarily designed to protect cables and lines against overload (thermal) and short-circuit (electromagnetic). They thus care for protecting this electrical equipment against excessive temperature rises and destruction… Read more

Nov 24, 2012 | By Edvard

Using Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB)
High Voltage

HV Instrument Current Transformers in T&D

Electrical measurements on a high-voltage transmission and distribution systems cannot be made practically or safely with direct contact to the power carrying conductors. Instead, the voltages and currents must be… Read more

Nov 23, 2012 | By Edvard

HV Instrument Current Transformers in Transmission and Distribution Systems
Variable Speed Drives

VLT Drives in Wastewater Treatment Plant Applications

The most common use of frequency converters is to drive sludge pumps, elevators, conveyers, aeration, chemical dosing, clarifiers, digesters, presses and centrifugal dewatering. In the beginning water is being pumped… Read more

Nov 22, 2012 | By MarkoCvrkota

VLT Drives in Wastewater Treatment Plant Applications
Industrial Automation

Few Words About Frequency Converters

Since the late 1960’s, frequency converters have undergone extremely rapid changes, largely as a result of the development of microprocessor and semi-conductor technologies and their reduction in prices. However, the basic principles of… Read more

Nov 21, 2012 | By Edvard

Few Words About Frequency Converters
Wind Power

Wind power applications, Grid connected or not?

There are perhaps four distinct categories of wind power which should be discussed. These are: Small, non-grid connected Small, grid connected Large, non-grid connected Large, grid connected By small, we… Read more

Nov 20, 2012 | By Edvard

Wind power applications, Grid connected or not?
Electric Motor

Stator Overheating Protection

All motors need protection against overheating resulting from overload, stalled rotor, or unbalanced stator currents. For complete protection, three-phase motors should have an overload element in each phase. This is… Read more

Nov 19, 2012 | By Edvard

Stator Overheating Protection
High Voltage

The Purpose of High Voltage Circuit Switchers

Circuit switchers have been developed to overcome some of the limitations of fusing for substation power transformers. Circuit switchers have SF6 gas interrupters and are designed to provide three-phase interruption… Read more

Nov 16, 2012 | By Edvard

Vertical interrupter circuit switcher without integral disconnect switch
High Voltage

Electrical Safety Standards for LV/MV/HV (Part-3)

Continued from part 2 – Electrical Safety Standards for LV/MV/HV (Part-2) Standard: Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE), 6/025 ENA Code: Indian Electricity Rules / Central Electricity Authority Right of Way Clearance… Read more

Nov 14, 2012 | By jiguparmar

Electrical Safety Standards for LV/MV/HV part 3


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