Power systems are constructed can be operated as radial systems, ring-main systems or meshed systems. This technical article deals with nine most common topologies of ring-main systems, their characteristics and…...
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Developments in communication have done much to realize the digital substation, but to realize a full digital substation it is necessary to have everything in digital form. Whilst much substation… Read more
During previous decades manufacturers of automatic compensation banks faced increasing competition worldwide. They were forced to produce as economically as possible. Now, new technologies have been developed compared with the… Read more
Each neutral earthing system has advantages and disadvantages for the safety of property, electromagnetic compatibility or continuity of service. The main system must therefore be chosen according to these criteria,… Read more
In relation with the increased use of mobile phones during the last decades more concerns about possible harmful effects of electro-magnetic fields to human beings have been expressed. Overhead lines… Read more
Substation automation involves the deployment of substation and feeder operating functions and applications ranging from SCADA and alarm processing, to integrated volt-var control in order to optimize the management of… Read more