Some numerical relays measure the absolute fault impedance and then determine whether operation is required according to impedance boundaries defined on the R/X diagram. Traditional distance relays and numerical relays… Read more
While ground-fault protective schemes may be elaborately developed, depending on the ingenuity of the relaying engineer, nearly all schemes in common practice are based on one or more of the… Read more
There are many other applications in the industry where capacitors are used for power factor correction or energy storage purposes. These include arc furnaces, resistance welding equipment, single-phase capacitor start,…...
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In order to ensure uninterrupted supply to connected loads in thermal and nuclear power stations, two types of automatic supply transfer schemes are normally used: automatic bus transfer scheme and… Read more
The term biased-differential or percentage differential is based on the fact that the operating threshold increases with the through current. Because of that, comparison of upstream and downstream currents in… Read more
Consideration of all the factors related to proper application of a low-voltage circuit breaker goes beyond voltage, current, and interrupting rating. The performance of a specific type of circuit breaker… Read more
Medium voltage switchgears are used for switching medium voltage loads through associated control, measuring, protective and regulating equipment. This operation also involves considerable manual intervention which therefore necessitates the fulfilment… Read more