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## Connection schematics of voltage transformers for protective applications

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# Archive: Category «Electrical Lectures»

Electrical Lectures

# PLC Latch (Flip-Flop) Logic Function – Like a Sticky Switch!

More complex systems cannot be controlled with combinatorial logic alone. The main reason for this is that we cannot (or choose not to) add sensors to detect all conditions. In… Read more

Aug 24, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Kirchhoff’s Laws For Electrical Engineers – Beginners

Two extremely important principles in electric circuits were codified by Gustav Robert Kirchhoff in the year 1847, known as Kirchhoff’s Laws. His two laws refer to Voltages and Currents in… Read more

Aug 19, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Few advices for improving integrity of protective conductor

Most modern electronic equipment uses switched mode power supplies (SMPS) which draw pulses of current from the mains supply rather than a continuous sinusoidal current. The fast rise time edges of the… Read more

Aug 14, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Practical Considerations of Transformer Heat and Noise

In addition to unwanted electrical effects, transformers may also exhibit undesirable physical effects, the most notable being the production of heat and noise. Transformer noise is primarily a nuisance effect,… Read more

Jul 31, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Essential Basics of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

For a signal y, the total harmonic distortion (THD) is defined by the equation: This definition complies with that of standard IEC 61000-2-2. Note that the resulting value may exceed… Read more

Jul 22, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# What can a PLC do? Why do we use them?

“PLC” means “Programmable Logic Controller”, that’s clear. The word “Programmable” differentiates it from the conventional hard-wired relay logic. It can be easily programmed or changed as per the application’s requirement…. Read more

Jul 15, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# 4 Main Means For The Generation Of Reactive Power

The four main means for the generation of reactive power are: synchronous alternators, synchronous compensators (SC), static var compensators (SVC) and banks of static capacitors. Contents Synchronous alternators Synchronous compensators… Read more

Jun 29, 2015 | By Edvard

Electric Motor

# Basics of DC Motors For Electrical Engineers – Beginners

Separate field excitation DC motors are still sometimes used for driving machines at variable speed. These motors are very easy to miniaturize, and essential for very low powers and low… Read more

Jun 15, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Cable sizing of sub-main electrical circuits (working examples)

A sub-main electrical circuit can be defined as a circuit connected directly from the main LV switchboard to a sub-main distribution panel or a rising main for final connection of the minor… Read more

Apr 29, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Back To School – Let’s Calculate Current I3

Referring to the following circuit, calculate direct current I3: Using Kirchhoff’s laws; Using nodal analysis; Applying Thévenin’s theorem at nodes A and B. – KCL stands for Kirchhoff’s Current Law… Read more

Apr 10, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCBs) For Beginners

This technical article focuses on the widely used miniature circuit breakers rated for 240 V or less. These are smaller and lower-rated versions of industrial-grade molded-case circuit breakers rated for… Read more

Jan 26, 2015 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# The choice of system voltage according to ANSI standard C84.1

The selection of system voltages is crucial to successful power system design. Reference lists the standard voltages for the United States and their ranges. The nominal voltages are given in Table… Read more

Aug 20, 2014 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# 2 Most Common Contributing Factors In Motor Insulation Failure

The most frequent failure in electrical equipment is the degradation and breakdown (flashover) of the insulation. Electrical insulation can be liquid or solid, organic or inorganic. Organic insulation material consists… Read more

Jun 25, 2014 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# What is the short-circuit switching (making / breaking) capacity?

The switching capacity is the r.m.s value of a current at a given power factor cos φ as well as a given rated voltage at which a switchgear or a… Read more

Feb 10, 2014 | By Edvard

Electrical Lectures

# Important in role of capacitors in distribution systems

Should the voltage on a circuit fall below a specified level for some reason, a device called a capacitor can momentarily maintain the voltage at line value. Basically, a capacitor… Read more

Nov 27, 2013 | By Edvard