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Archive: Category «Energy and Power»

Disturbances In LV Networks Due To Surges

There are two types of surge: those generated by a lightning impact and those resulting from electrical switchgear switching operations. Surges resulting from lightning strokes (see figure below) can affect all electrical installations. Consequently, they… Read more

Oct 06, 2012 | Edvard

Disturbances Due To Surges

How to Protect Capacitor Banks?

Capacitor banks are used to compensate for reactive energy absorbed by electrical system loads, and sometimes to make up filters to reduce harmonic voltage. Their role is to improve the quality of the electrical system…. Read more

Oct 05, 2012 | Edvard

How to Protect Capacitor Banks?

Definitions of Abnormal Voltage Conditions

A sag is a temporary reduction in the normal AC voltage. A momentary sag is a variation, which lasts for a period of 0.5 cycle to about 2 s usually the result of a short circuit somewhere… Read more

Oct 02, 2012 | Edvard

Definitions of Abnormal Voltage Conditions

Overview of Single Phase Induction Type Energy Meter

Single phase induction type energy meter is also popularly known as watt-hour meter. This name is given to it. This article is only focused about its constructional features and its working. Induction type energy meter… Read more

Sep 28, 2012 | Bipul Raman

Single-phase induction kilowatt hour meter

Inspection of Ground-Fault Protection Systems

This type of protection is defined by the NEC (National Electrical Code) to ensure protection against fire on electrical power installations. To ensure protection against fire: The NEC defines the use of an RCD with very… Read more

Sep 25, 2012 | Edvard

Inspection of Ground-Fault Protection Systems

Testing and Commissioning of Metal-Clad Switchgear

Electrical testing and commissioning of Metal-Clad switchgear is essential to the safe start for the first time, regardless of its size, type or industry. This article covers testing and start-up / commisioning procedures for all… Read more

Sep 24, 2012 | Edvard

Distribution substation - 20/04kV MCset metal-clad switchgear (Schneider Electric)

Surge Protection of Electronic Equipment

Generally, power circuits have components that have large thermal capacities, which make it impossible for them to attain very high temperatures quickly except during very large or long disturbances. This requires correspondingly large surge energies…. Read more

Sep 22, 2012 | Edvard

Surge Protection of Electronic Equipment

Introduction to Static Protection Relays

The term ‘static’ implies that the relay has no moving parts. This is not strictly the case for a static relay, as the output contacts are still generally attracted armature relays. In a protection relay,… Read more

Sep 21, 2012 | Edvard

RSR-72 Static relay for motor re-start and reacceleration

What is the purpose of equipotential bonding?

Equipotential bonding is essentially an electrical connection maintaining various exposed conductive parts and extraneous conductive parts at substantially the same potential. An earthed equipotential zone is one within which exposed conductive parts and extraneous conductive… Read more

Sep 20, 2012 | Edvard

Purpose of Equipotential bonding

Definition of Harmonics and Their Origin

The Fourier theorem states that all non-sinusoidal periodic functions can be represented as the sum of terms (i.e. a series) made up of: A sinusoidal term at the fundamental frequency, Definition of Harmonics and Their… Read more

Sep 17, 2012 | Edvard

Definition of Harmonics and Their Origin

Functions Performed by Electrical Switchgear

National and international standards define the method for making electrical distribution circuits as well as the purpose and functions of switchgear. There are three main functions, namely: Circuit protection takes three main fault types into… Read more

Sep 14, 2012 | Edvard

Functions Performed by Electrical Switchgear

Nikola Tesla – Everything is the Light

Once, in 1899, Nikola Tesla had an interview with certain journalist John Smith, when Tesla said “Everything is the Light“. In one of its rays is the fate of nations, each nation has its own ray… Read more

Sep 12, 2012 | Edvard

Tesla meets King Peter II of Yugoslavia on July 15, 1942

Under the Hood of LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes)

LED lamps, or Light Emitting Diodes, are becoming more and more common. Having been used for some time in products such as digital watches, remote controls and brake lights, they are now being seen in… Read more

Sep 08, 2012 | Paul Blythe

Under the hood of LEDs (Light emitting diodes)


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