At low voltage level, SCADA applications are usually used for process control and monitoring of equipment. Furthermore, incoming circuit breakers or switch disconnectors inside large LV switchboards may also be…...
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Energy efficiency in commercial buildings involves providing a given level of performance, cost, quality, availability, and comfort at a minimal level of energy usage throughout the lifecycle of a given… Read more
Although single-phase electricity is used to supply common domestic and office electrical appliances, three phase alternating current (a.c.) systems are almost universally used to distribute electrical power and to supply… Read more
Centralized substation protection and control has been attempted in the past based on the available technology. This evolution is now at the intersection of sensing, protection and communication technologies, providing… Read more
The cabling of the industrial communication systems (Modbus RS485) is different in some ways from the cabling used for power cabling and the electrician may experience some difficulties if he is not… Read more
In order to measure electrical quantities, the measuring instruments must be connected to the lines safely, with maximum simplicity and convenience. Generally, the fundamental parameters to be detected are voltage… Read more
Digital multimeter has generally replaced the analog-type multimeter as the test device of choice for maintainers because they are easier to read, are often more compact and have greater accuracy…. Read more
A four-wire system is suitable to supply unbalanced, three-phase loads or single phase loads distributed on all three phases of a low voltage installation. When measuring power on a three-phase… Read more