At low voltage level, SCADA applications are usually used for process control and monitoring of equipment. Furthermore, incoming circuit breakers or switch disconnectors inside large LV switchboards may also be…...
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This approach assumes retrofitting and upgrading old substation secondary equipment such as intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), monitoring sensors, power apparatus, communication protocol and operating standards to improve the overall performance… Read more
This technical article reviews substation level data acquisition architecture and communication protocol described in IEC 61850. IEC 61850 is the current international standard for substation automation (SA). The focus of… Read more
The objectives of the protection system are: to limit damage to people and to the plant, permit different service conditions, guarantee maximum service continuity for the plant not affected by faults and activate the automatisms… Read more
Centralized substation protection and control has been attempted in the past based on the available technology. This evolution is now at the intersection of sensing, protection and communication technologies, providing… Read more
In industrial plants and installations, control systems are used to monitor and control processes. Control Systems, whether a conventional Control Desk or a Computer/PLCs System with SCADA or a Distributed… Read more
There are different product families on the market: instruments that measure a single electric parameter (voltage, current, frequency, phase angle cosϕ), generally used in single phase systems, as instrumentation on… Read more