This technical article discusses some of the basics of protection and control as successfully used for decades. Majority of these general requirements will have to be retained by new communication-based… Read more
Distribution substations with installed power of 2×1600 kVA are typical example of electrical power supply facilities which can be often seen all around the Europe and wider. By “calculation” of such a substation, it is assumed that...
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Generally speaking, distribution substations should be designed with redundancy allowing a portion of feeders to remain energized if any major component fails or is taken out of service for maintenance…. Read more
Electrical systems within a nuclear power plant (NPP) deserve significant design considerations. The availability of on-site as well as off-site power plays a crucial role in nuclear power plant safety… Read more
This technical article describes single line diagrams of two typical power substations 66/11 kV and 11/0.4 kV and their power flow, principles of incoming lines (incomers) and outgoing lines (feeders),… Read more
Distribution systems are basically insecure – failure of a major component always leads to customer interruptions. So, what can be done? Reliable distribution systems minimize this impact by allowing faults… Read more