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The most important precautions during commissioning and start up of LV switchgear

Low voltage switchgear can often be very complex and expensive piece of electrical equipment, usually representing one of the most critical and crucial parts of the project. In order to…...

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Jun 13, 2019 | Miodrag Kokotovic

The most important precautions during commissioning and start up of LV switchgear

8 common mistakes in reading and creating single line and wiring diagrams

In order to create consistent and technically correct single line or wiring diagram, more than basic knowledge about engineering field in question is required. Besides electrical installation and equipment, design engineer should be...

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May 30, 2019 | Miodrag Kokotovic

8 common mistakes in reading and creating single line and wiring diagrams

The case of phase-to-phase fault in a 13.8 kV switchgear caused by heavy rain

In this case study we describe a 13.8 kV switchgear phase-to-phase fault due to by heavy rain evolving into a three-phase fault that was cleared by transformer numerical relays. The…...

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May 17, 2019 | Edvard

The case of phase-to-phase fault in a 13.8kV switchgear caused by heavy rain

How to make calculation for a distribution substation 10/0.4 kV, 2×1600 kVA

Distribution substations with installed power of 2×1600 kVA are typical example of electrical power supply facilities which can be often seen all around the Europe and wider. By “calculation” of such a substation, it is assumed that...

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May 02, 2019 | Miodrag Kokotovic

How to make calculation for a distribution substation 10/0.4 kV, 2x1600 kVA

Ultra-high voltage (UHV) AC gas insulated switchgear (GIS) for 1000kV and above

Ultra-high voltage (UHV) AC gas insulated switchgear (GIS) can corrctly work only if all its internal components are properly assembled and the metal enclosure is filled with SF6 gas at…...

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Apr 25, 2019 | Edvard

Ultra-high voltage (UHV) AC gas insulated switchgear (GIS) for 1000kV and above

Learn to read and understand single line diagrams and wiring diagrams

Single line diagrams are used in common engineering practice as graphical representation of electrical switchboard or assembly containing more sections, i.e. cubicles. Basically, they are simplified and digest picture of…...

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Apr 12, 2019 | Miodrag Kokotovic

Guidelines to reading and understanding single line and wiring diagrams

Practical steps in the design of a substation grounding

Grounding at power substations is extremely important. Grounding system provides the ground connection for the grounded neutral for transformers, reactors, and capacitors and also the discharge path for lightning rods,…...

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Mar 29, 2019 | Edvard

The most important steps in the practical design of a substation grid

Practical approach in design and installation of detuned capacitor banks

During last two or three decades, the number of nonlinear electrical loads inside all types of buildings and facilities (residential, business, commercial and industrial) has been significantly increased. All that…...

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Mar 15, 2019 | Miodrag Kokotovic

Practical approach in design and installation of detuned capacitor banks

Three essential features of automation in power distribution systems

One may wonder why are everybody talking more and more about automation in power distribution. Aren’t we already automated? Well, we are not. It can always be better, faster, with…...

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Feb 28, 2019 | Edvard

The essential features of automation in power distribution systems

Connections and working principles of three-phase distribution transformers

A three-phase service can be supplied by one three-phase transformer unit or by interconnecting three single-phase transformer units. One three-phase unit is smaller than an equivalent size bank consisting of…...

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Feb 08, 2019 | Edvard

Three-Phase Transformer Connections