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Generally, in most of the countries that cover large area, there are three types of distribution systems: urban, suburban, and rural. Each type of them has its own features regarding… Read more
Jul 08, 2020 | Edvard
A busbar protection is a protection to protect busbars at short-circuits and earth-faults. In the “childhood” of electricity no separate protection was used for the busbars. Nearby line protection were… Read more
Jun 24, 2020 | Edvard
It’s not unusual to see that engineers mix terms of primary ratings. If they are not understood well, yes, it’s possible to mix some of them. But it’s essential to… Read more
Jun 22, 2020 | Edvard
I would say that coordination is a TEAMWORK. In the protection context, it implies how the various protection devices in an electrical distribution network, work as a team, to achieve…...
Jun 15, 2020 | Sivakumar K
Protective relays are most often applied with other protective and auxiliary relays as a system rather than individually. The following basic scheme descriptions apply to electromechanical, static, and microprocessor relay… Read more
Jun 06, 2020 | Edvard
Interconnection transformers are used to interface a distribution generation (DG) unit with an existing power system, and to provide the necessary isolation. Utilities recommend using an interconnection transformer to eliminate… Read more
Jun 03, 2020 | Edvard
Nowadays, the design and manufacturing of a Medium Voltage switchgear is not an easy task. Many factors could affect the generation of an optimal set of engineering drawings to be…...
May 18, 2020 | Ivan Contreras
First, to be clear, there are dozen of concerns and precautions you should be aware of when we talk about energy transport. Cables and busbar systems are the most common… Read more
May 11, 2020 | Edvard
Nowadays, HV/EHV substations have become pretty complex from the design point of view. Besides the main electrical equipment, which must be designed and selected correctly, there are several auxiliary facilities…...
Apr 27, 2020 | Edvard
Nowadays everybody speaks about power quality. For many reasons, I would say. Electrical energy is now polluted more than ever, and consumers are more sensitive to power disruptions and fluctuations… Read more
Apr 20, 2020 | Edvard
There are usually several ways of protecting HV/MV generators and transformers. It should be noted that one protection relay is often used for several functions, for example, an overcurrent relay…...
Apr 17, 2020 | Edvard
Up to and including 52 kV voltage range is generally referred to as “medium voltage”. This technical article shed some light on a few devices you are likely to spot… Read more
Apr 13, 2020 | Edvard
Within this article, custom made cubicle intended for supply and protection of MV reactive power compensation block, will be analyzed. Technical characteristics of major electrical components, together with three line…...
Apr 09, 2020 | Miodrag Kokotovic
First, I would like to make a note that there are many essentials when we speak about power systems in general. The main relay protection functions (overcurrent, directional, differential, distance,… Read more
Apr 06, 2020 | Edvard
What is the civil engineering of substation? The civil engineering includes a large quantity of information and details for the structural drawings required to design switchgear installations. The structural drawings… Read more
Apr 01, 2020 | Edvard