This technical article discusses some of the basics of protection and control as successfully used for decades. Majority of these general requirements will have to be retained by new communication-based… Read more
Developing basic setting specifications for numerical relays is a boring process for most electrical engineers, but not for the protection engineers! It requires significant input data but, for the most… Read more
Generally speaking, distribution substations should be designed with redundancy allowing a portion of feeders to remain energized if any major component fails or is taken out of service for maintenance…. Read more
Ultra-high voltage (UHV) AC gas insulated switchgear (GIS) can corrctly work only if all its internal components are properly assembled and the metal enclosure is filled with SF6 gas at…...
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Distribution systems are basically insecure – failure of a major component always leads to customer interruptions. So, what can be done? Reliable distribution systems minimize this impact by allowing faults… Read more
This technical article explains six most common bus configurations used for distribution, transmission, or switching substations at voltages up to 345 kV. Presented single line diagrams and layouts are generalized… Read more
Pilot schemes simultaneously measure and monitor system parameters at all terminals of a transmission line, local and remote, and then respond according to their predetermined functions. These schemes require the… Read more