Some numerical relays measure the absolute fault impedance and then determine whether operation is required according to impedance boundaries defined on the R/X diagram. Traditional distance relays and numerical relays… Read more
There are many other applications in the industry where capacitors are used for power factor correction or energy storage purposes. These include arc furnaces, resistance welding equipment, single-phase capacitor start,…...
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Electrical distribution systems are an essential part of the electrical power system. In order to transfer electrical power from an alternating current (AC) or a direct current (DC) source to… Read more
Transmission and distribution systems are exposed to overcurrent flow into their elements. In an electric power system, overcurrent or excess current is a situation where a larger than intended electric… Read more
In relation with the increased use of mobile phones during the last decades more concerns about possible harmful effects of electro-magnetic fields to human beings have been expressed. Overhead lines… Read more
Arc-suppression reactors are also named earth fault neutralisers or Petersen-coils after W. Petersen who launched the idea of this particular reactor application early in the previous century. In high voltage… Read more