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# Electrical Power Notes and Formulas For Students

## Electrical Engineering

This document represents a crib sheet of all the pertinent formulas and information associated with the courses of Graham Van Brunt, the professional electrical engineer and an instructor at EEP Academy. It can be used as a reference for completing quizzes or any requirement going forward in the real world. The document consists of fourteen chapters covering important notes and formulas and can be downloaded at the bottom of this page.

Feel free to visit the Graham’s Youtube channel with free videos and his website PSPT (Powr Systems Protection Training).

The following chapters and their corresponding courses are covered here:

1. DC Circuit Analysis
2. AC Circuit Analysis
3. Power Analysis in AC Circuits
4. Digital Electric Circuits
5. Electrical Trigonometry
6. Derivatives
7. Per Unit Analysis
8. Symmetrical Components
9. Short Circuit Analysis
10. Protection and Control
11. Three Phase Transformers
12. Metering
13. Rotating Machines
14. Low Voltage Electrical Wiring

## Chapters & Associated Courses

### 1. DC Circuit Analysis

The first chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of electrical direct current (DC) circuits (Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Laws, Series and Parallel Circuits, etc.) and the most common practice problems students face during studying.

### 2. AC Circuit Analysis

The second chapter provides the student with the basic notes and formulas of working with circuits involving Alternation Current, which includes sinusoidal waveforms, vectors and phasors, reactance & impedance of R, L, C circuits, as they relate to the basic laws and theorems of electricity.

This includes working with AC power, power factor, resonance, complex numbers, reactance and impedance.

### 3. Power Analysis in AC Circuits

The third chapter covers the basics on how to use real, reactive, and complex power in the analysis of AC circuits. You will learn how to calculate power factor correction (PFC) and power in three-phase circuits.

### 4. Digital Electric Circuits

The fourth chapter is dedicated to digital logic which is the foundation for modern relay protection and IEDs (Intelligent Electrical Devices). You will learn binary numbers and binary arithmetic, logic gates and switches, and combinational logic functions.

### 5. Electrical Trigonometry

This chapter takes you from the fundamentals of trigonometry to the more sophisticated operations required in electrical engineering. As you work and study electrical engineering you are going to run into various proofs and equations that are based on trigonometry.

### 6. Engineering Calculus Made Simple (Derivatives)

This chapter is designed as the basics review of derivatives as they apply to electrical functions. It is designed for the student of electrical engineering who comes across theoretical formulas that reference derivatives. A detailed understanding of derivatives is not required in order to continue the electrical topic and this course will provide the basic amount required.

### 7. Per Unit Analysis for Single and Three-Phase Systems

In this chapter, you will learn exactly what Per Unit Analysis is, the main advantages of using it, how manufacturers of electrical equipment use and rate their products, and the technique of converting to and from the Per Unit system. Several examples of working with Per Unit are demonstrated in this crisp clear presentation. When you finish you will have a though understanding of this subject.

It is important for all power engineers and technicians to be familiar with the concept of Per Unit as it is being used and referred to every day in power flow, short circuit evaluation, and motor starting studies.

### 8. Symmetrical Components

This chapter deals with the method of symmetrical components, which is used to simplify asymmetrical three-phase voltages and current analysis. The method of symmetrical components converts the unbalanced system into two sets of balanced phasors and a set of single-phase phasors or symmetrical components. These sets of phasors are called the positive, negative, and zero sequence components.

An understanding of this method is essential for the understanding of fault analysis and modern-day protection schemes. the dedicated course will provide you with the knowledge to comprehend the concept and how it is applied.

### 9. Short Circuit Analysis Using Symmetrical Components

This chapter introduces the student to the basic concepts of fault studies on a high voltage three-phase system. In the dedicated course. with the help of a quick review of “Per Phase” and “Per Unit” methodologies system faults are analyzed with the use of symmetrical components. System modeling is then used in order to aid in the process, with the ability to move between asymmetrical and symmetrical systems.

At the end of the dedicated course, the student will understand the basic concepts of fault studies on a high voltage three-phase system. The student will understand the methodologies of system faults and be able to analyze faults using symmetrical components.

### 10. Protection and Control of High Voltage Power Circuits

This chapter deals with the protection and control principles of high voltage power stations. Starting with system faults and how they affect switchyard configuration and elements, simple “Differential Protection” is examined along with the maloperation due to CT saturation and mismatch.

### 11. Three Phase Transformers

This chapter covers the fundamentals of electrical transformers in terms of electromagnetism, voltage and current transformation, ratios, and polarity, potential and current transformers, 3-phase transformer construction, transformer classifications, losses, and cooling, per unit, etc.

The dedicated course covers transformer core construction along with losses and cooling mitigation techniques. 3-phase transformer configurations are studied along with harmonic distortion, CT saturation, and on-load tap-changer problems and how these problems are dealt with.

### 12. Instrument and Electric Power Metering

This chapter presents the fundamentals of instrument and single-phase/three-phase metering in utilities and industry, digital and analog wattmeters, Kwhr meters, polyphase connections.

### 13. Rotating Electrical Machines

This chapter focuses on the fundamentals of rotating electrical equipment. This includes AC and DC motors and generators. The dedicated course starts with the basic theories required and finishes up with some example problems. Starting with a simple liner DC machine the course takes you through rotating DC motors and generators, Induction motors and finishing with synchronous motors and generators.

You will find several examples of sample problems with the final chapter dedicated to just that.

Upon completion of this course, the student will have a working knowledge of DC motors and generators including commutation. This includes three-phase and single-phase induction motors and how synchronous generators work alone and connector to large systems such as the North American Grid.

### 14. Low Voltage Electrical Wiring

This chapter is intended for use by those new to using electrical drawings or those wishing to refresh their knowledge of the associated function and components that make up the electrical drawing system.

The purpose of the dedicated course is to provide an overview of drafting and drawings used in the electrical industry.

Electrical drawing’s purpose is to transfer electrical information or requirements to one or several users so that productive work may be performed. This work may consist of such actions as estimating, planning, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, maintenance and troubleshooting.

The interpretation of electrical drawings requires knowledge of circuit diagram, graphics, alphabetic and numeric symbols, basic circuit practices and a basic understanding of the relevant process requirements.

 Title: Electrical Power Notes and Formulas For Students – Graham Van Brunt Format: PDF Size: 16.6 MB Pages: 48 Download: Right here | Video Courses | Membership | Download Updates