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## What is harmonic distortion in a power system, and how to minimize the impacts

Learn about power engineering and HV/MV/LV substations. Study specialized technical articles, papers, and electrical engineering video courses.

# Electrical engineering guides, research studies and papers

## Electrical books and guides

Electrical engineering is a field of engineering  that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics  and electromagnetism. Many companies and industry experts has been releasing technical books and guides in order to spread their knowledge, so they are all here, presented for you.

### Introduction to energy generation

Prior to the discovery of Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic discussion, electrical power was available from batteries with limited voltage and current levels. Although complicated in construction, D.C. generators were developed first to generate power in bulk.

However, due to limitation of the D.C. machine to generate voltage beyond few hundred volts, it was not economical to transmit large amount of power over a long distance. For a given amount of power, the current magnitude (I = P/V), hence section of the copper conductor will be large.

Thus generation, transmission and distribution of D.C. power were restricted to area of few kilometer radius with no interconnections between generating plants. Therefore, area specific generating stations along with its distribution networks had to be used.

In later half of eighties, in nineteenth century, it was proposed to have a power system with 3-phase, 50 Hz A.C generation, transmission and distribution networks.

Once A.C. system was adopted, transmission of large power (MW) at higher transmission voltage become a reality by using transformers. Level of voltage could be changed virtually to any other desired level with transformers – which was hitherto impossible with D.C system.

## Browse guides and papers

Note that all documents in this section are free to download. Navigate through sub-pages to discover all documents.

## Low resistance testing to ensure electrical system performance

Why do we have resistance measuring instruments, some with only two test leads, some with three and even some with four test leads? The answer depends on the degree of information required from the measurement,… Read more

Released on Jun 12, 2017

## Testing and commissioning of electrical installations for students

A test is required to verify the continuity of each conductor including the circuit protective conductor (cpc) of every ring final circuit. The test results should establish that the ring is complete and has no… Read more

Released on Jun 05, 2017

## Basic AC/DC circuit theory, analysis and problems

In the analysis of an AC circuit, voltage and current phasors are used with resistances and reactances in much the same way that voltages and currents are used with resistances in the analysis of a… Read more

Released on May 17, 2017

## Electrical troubleshooter for AC/DC circuits, relays, contactors and PLCs

This “Study Guide” is designed to provide the electrical troubleshooter with a review of, and the mechanical troubleshooter with an introduction of, basic electrical skills needed for him/her to safely and more efficiently carry out… Read more

Released on May 10, 2017

## Course on basic electrical technology – Electrical circuits, machines & measurements

Welcome to this course on Basic Electrical Technology. Engineering students of almost all disciplines has to undergo this course (name may be slightly different in different course curriculum) as a core subject in the first… Read more

Released on May 08, 2017

## Course in electrical machines and systems (principles, characteristics and control)

The purpose of this course is to explore in greater depth the AC and DC machines. The approach is that of the application engineer rather than the machine designer, concentrating on the basic principles, characteristics, and… Read more

Released on May 03, 2017

## Lecture notes in electrical measurements for EE students

Electrical voltage and current are two important quantities in an electrical network. The voltage is the effort variable without which no current is available. It is measured across an electrical circuit element or branch of… Read more

Released on May 01, 2017

## Power distribution inside large buildings

In large buildings the type of distribution depends on the building type, dimension, the length of supply cables, and the loads. The distribution system can be divided in to: The vertical supply system (rising mains)… Read more

Released on Mar 29, 2017

## Electrical safety manual for students and young electricians

Take time to plan your work, by yourself and with others. Safety planning is an important part of any task. It takes effort to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards. If you are thinking about your… Read more

Released on Mar 20, 2017

## Instructions on how to achieve reactive power compensation

There are few solutions, that can handle the problem of reactive power compensation. One of them is reactive power compensator basing on power capacitors. This is the most popular compensating device, mainly because of economical reasons,… Read more

Released on Mar 15, 2017

## Basic principles of electrical grounding for electricians and technicians

This is a discussion of the basic principles behind electrical grounding systems and how grounding is related to safety and the effective operation of circuit protection devices such as fuses and circuit breakers. The discussion… Read more

Released on Feb 15, 2017

## Electrical engineering manual for defence facilities and infrastructure

The aim of this manual is to assist those concerned with formulating requirements for electrical engineering in the construction of new infrastructure and facilities, existing facilities and infrastructure undergoing refurbishment, leased facilities for use or… Read more

Released on Feb 12, 2017

## Residential electrical wiring guide for electricians

It is difficult to imagine a world without lights, computers, stereos, or microwave ovens. A few hundred years ago, these items had not yet been invented. Even if they had, there wouldn’t have been any… Read more

Released on Jan 23, 2017

## Clamp-on method of ground testing (grounding system quality)

This Megger’s guide will focus on the clamp-on method of ground testing and is designed to give the reader a better understanding of the test method and where it can and cannot be used. Factors… Read more

Released on Jan 09, 2017

## Lightning protection guide

The function of a lightning protection system is to protect structures from fire or mechanical destruction and persons in the buildings from injury or even death. A lightning protection system consists of an external and… Read more

Released on Jan 04, 2017

1. Abdulhakeem Dauda
Aug 11, 2020

Intrestive and educative want to learn and be a member

2. med
Apr 14, 2020

I would like to thank you all for all this serious and helpful information

3. dritan
Mar 17, 2020

Hello!
Do you have any vocabulary for technical electric, devices?
Thank you

4. tfeld
Feb 18, 2020

how do i register?

• Ahmed Cheikh
Dec 21, 2020

How to regist and pay fees

5. Swapnil Raut
Jan 07, 2020

Hi,
Can you please upload some useful stuff related to Electrical wiring harness and Electrical vehicle as well.

Thanks

6. Hein thu
Nov 14, 2019

I would like to know about low voltage distibution and protection system

7. Godswill Essienta
Aug 18, 2019

thumbs up

8. Bazeer Ali
Aug 01, 2019

God bless you.

Your website helping me/non electrical background persons lot.

• Edvard
Dec 14, 2019

You’re welcome Ali, and thank you for the kind words.

9. Leslie
Jun 03, 2019

Hello to everybody. I want to find a good textbook in English on Power Elecrical Systems for industrial enterprises, the design of power supply systems of industrial enterprises like Boeing, General Motors, Ford, VW, etc. I found some textbooks in Russian (Dr. Konyukhova, Moscow Power Energetic University) but I wish to have textbooks on the same topic by American authors. Who can be recommended?

10. abhishek chandel
May 31, 2019

seriously you are a great man .
, thank you very much.

11. abhishek chandel
May 31, 2019

great work seriously , thank you very much.

• Edvard
May 31, 2019

Thank you very much Abhishek.

12. Sonny Abbie
Jan 29, 2019

Hi Edvard,

In street lighting design /or installation? Is the STREET LIGHTING POLE need to be bonded direct to earth for each Pole? is there any specific reference standard?

13. Josam Daka
Nov 29, 2018

I am looking for sample drawings for Power & Control circuits for a 75kW Soft Starter including PLCs, HMI, Utrasonic level sensors, Utrasonic flow sensors, drive-end and non-drive-end bearing sensors, termistors and associated relays suitable for a Water Pumping Solution

14. M Iqbal Khan
Sep 27, 2018

Dear All,

I am facing a problem, we have a single 9R32 Wartsila engine and loeri somer alternator. ABB Unitrol 1000-15 A AVR. the generator produces 5.5 kV and then a step up transformer make this 11kv and then step down transformer. the generator trips at overvoltage first stage at 112% at any load during operation.

Checked following;
IR for alternator { main stator, main rotor, exciter stator, exciter rotor}
Diode testing cold and with 24 VDC
PT IR testing secondary circuit
resistance with ground
MCBs replaced
The star point of the secondary circuit and its grounding.
the resistance of earting pits
verified full excitation circuit.
Everything found normal

Could anybody help or give an idea or they faced this problem, please respond.
Regards

• Shahrier kabir
Oct 03, 2018

please check the varistor if its found okay then tightening the diode and other equipment…..Good Luck

15. C.SUBRAMANIAN NAMBISAN
Sep 11, 2018

EEP website is doing a wonderful job of providing informative articles to practicing engineers.It is a great effort to keep it going.
Many Many thanks ,CS Nambisan

16. NEEMA SILAU
Jun 25, 2018

This is really useful, thank you team.

17. HUMAYUN AKHTAR
May 22, 2018

I NEED A LITERATURE HOW TO FIND FAULTS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING IN MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLES.THERE IS A VAN TESTED WITH INSTRUMENTS TO CHECK AND LOCATE THE FAULTS IN MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLES.WHAT IS HOT POT TESTS.

18. moham
May 09, 2018

Hello ,
Thank you.

19. moham
Apr 24, 2018

Hello
I need guidance to select the cylindrical insulator for the switchgear.
(Selection with the formula and IEC standard)

can you help my?
Thank you
[email protected]

20. kamal naser
Apr 09, 2018

first of all i want to say thanks for such a nice site
after that I need an excel calculation sheet for street lighting and park lighting
thanks

21. Zar Ni Thein
Jul 12, 2017

Please kindly help me to get IEC standard for my reference. I am looking long time to download for this , but till now i can’t get it.

Jun 28, 2017

Has anyone have excel software to determine Earth Fault on the network , how different is it to Fault level calc’s

23. Yogin Rawal
Jun 12, 2017

Hello every one,

Q-1: (a) Can some one provide an example of a “T-Connection” from 220 kV to 220 kV transmission line without any normal/required protection equipment and controls?
(b) What danger this type of connection poses to the TL and all connected the Substations?
Q-2: Is there a British Electrical Code gives examption from installing Automatic Fire Protection System? Reference please.

Thank you,

Yogin

24. SABER
May 04, 2017

Dear Sir
i need to know if there are any international stander for the % of spare line “fully equiped with CB” should be kept inside each switchgear ,switchboard and distribution board?
also the % of space line ” free of devices” should be kept inside each switchgear ,switchboard and distribution board?

25. Rajesh Kumar
Apr 29, 2017

Good post. I am very interested in electrical repairing work and that is why I like to read blogs about electrical work. Keep updating more and also write more on other topics. Because I love this field I do ac servicing work.

26. Jose Antonio Cayón
Apr 18, 2017

I would like to know about the Direct Current Motor Starter Design. How do you design the start resistance and the number of them?

Thank you very much in advance.

27. abhijit
Mar 05, 2017

Dear sir,

we have to make contact of switch upto 150A how to select the cross section area for rated current 150A

28. Chandran C
Feb 27, 2017

Thanks for the wonderful tips. We are into home appliance service and blogs like these are very helpful to us. Keep writing more.

29. Bazic
Feb 22, 2017

Thank you so much for your efforts, this website is very useful

Regards

30. Tran Nguyen Chau
Feb 15, 2017

This is the best web site ever for basics of electrical engineering!!

31. Dharmendra
Feb 07, 2017

I have a 150 KVA generator. It suddenly developed a malfunction recently. When it is switched on, it runs for about 30 seconds and then goes off. It is electronically switched on or off.

Jan 09, 2017

Dear EE Portal,

Thanks for having such informative website.I am looking for quite long about Electricity metering sp[specifically define kwh meter, var and var hour meter and smart meter.

If their is any book regarding metering please send me on [email protected]

33. Ashok
Dec 13, 2016

hello sir,

Please clear my confusion. While calculating load currents for sizing the cables, which P.F.should be used?? Old or new after compensation..? and also i heard that reduced cable size depends on the type of compensation.i.e. global, sector or individual…please explain.

• Abhiram
Dec 21, 2016

Hello,

If you are talking about XLPE cables, then the power factor to be selected as per the load type. If it is residential, then you can go to 0.8 or below ; if it is commercial/ industrial you have to go to 0.9 or unity (If full motor/ pump loads).
You can select/ alter the PF as per the local authority approvals only.

For Fire pumps, large motors & AC units(with motor) always consider starting current as 1.5 times the normal load as standard to size the MCCB/ Isolator rating & then select the cable size accordingly.

regards,
Abhiram Ajay
Dubai

34. Sanket Saxena
Nov 12, 2016

plz upload any book for practical thinghs mean to say book only linked how to use thinghs pratically which enhance our innovation skills

35. Krishnan C
Nov 08, 2016

I like working on electronics very much. And that is why I have chosen the field of computers and printers. Good post. Keep updating more.

36. Bipin nena
Nov 05, 2016

Dear sir,

I always learning with EEP, the best site for electrical,
Sir I want to DOE fundamental of electrical science vol. 2 of 4, hear in site I just see vol. 1 of 4,

37. Rizwan Ahmed Rafiq
Sep 29, 2016

How can we size the Load Bank?

38. Krunal Shah
Sep 28, 2016

39. Md. Ashraful Alom
Sep 05, 2016

hi,
thank you very much

40. Md. Ashraful Alom
Sep 05, 2016

hi,

41. LOGANATHAN
Aug 19, 2016

Dear sir, I AM A REGULAR READER FOR THIS SITE. I AM A RETIRED ELEC ENGINEERING FROM .DEPt OF SPACE, ISRO IN INDIA.I AM SHARING THIS SITE CONTENT WITH MY FRIENDS IN ISRO.
IT IS WELL RECEIVED BY THEM & APPRECIATED BY THEM. AS SUCH I DO NOT HAVE A PAYPAL ACCOUNT. I AM INITIATING ONE &SHORTLY I WOULD LIKE TO MAKE A DONATION TO THE GOOD CAUSE FOR THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS (AND FOR THE SUBJECT) BY YOUR INITIATIVE . REGARDS.

42. Marchester Real Bakah
Jun 22, 2016

Can i get help for the procedure for Calculating Three-phase fault current for symmetrical/unsymmetrical systems

43. PAULOSE V P
Oct 29, 2015

I am very pleased to know the difference between symmetrical three phase system and balanced three phase system. Please let me know symmetrical systems and balanced systems.

Rgds
Thank you

44. Javier Mitchell
Aug 09, 2015

Hello Engineering Portal Team.
Congratulations for this wonderful site.
I have found exactly what I needed.
Sory I can not donate at this moment, But this
Engineering portal really deserve a donation just
as many other wonderful sites on the WEB.
please dont give up our portal. Keep on.
Great Thanks to you all.

45. Anwar Ali
Aug 08, 2015

I want to know about the current and voltage role in human body killing (death and electric shuck). I studied many articless/books about it but some are saying current kill people while some are stating voltage. In my opinion it is frequency as in our country frequency is 50Hz and voltage is 220 P-P. It usually kill people while electrocuted. In the country I am working the frequency is 60Hz and the voltage is same 220 P-P and I did not hear that some one electrocuted and died.

As we go down in reducing frequency the system is going to DC nature which is more danger than AC.

Please explain so that I can make clear my concept.

46. Ernest
May 26, 2015

Good work

47. Ernest
May 26, 2015

I am electrical engineering student , and i want to know more about power transformers.Thank you for the good job.

48. Luis Lemus
Mar 04, 2015

Good day, first of all i would like to congratulate all of you for such an amazing portal. Contributions are great and i feel like i can keep learning each day a little bit more. I do have one request to make, if possible. I am currently working my thesis and i am interested in power quality for a call center building; specifically i am looking for information about the IEEE.Std. 1100. If you could share something it would be great. Greetings and keep up the great job!!!

49. Zreik
Feb 17, 2015

can u Upload some article about Selectivity for DC Auxiliare low voltage?

50. Sayed Yusuf Ali
Dec 25, 2014

Excellent. Keep it up.

51. prem
Dec 06, 2014

Good

52. SUNIL
Sep 19, 2014

Can you upload some article with respect haradous area classification as per IEC 60079. Easy to understand.

53. Sabariprakash
Sep 05, 2014

Hi sir..
I am having confusion in selection of alternate motor against the installed one.Here i will give the details of installed & alternate motor which i decided for procurement.

Installed 3 phase Squirrel cage IM:
Supply Voltage=415v; P=22Kw; Rated Torque=131.7Nm; speed=1468rpm; Frame Size=180L; Rated Current=37.2A(VFD duty Motor); NDE bearings=6210 ZC3 ;DE bearings=6210 ZC3; Cooling Method=IC416 ;

Proposed 3 phase Squirrel cage IM:

Supply Voltage=415v; P=22Kw; Rated Torque=143Nm; speed=1473rpm; Frame Size=180L; Rated Current=38A; NDE bearings=6310 ZC3 ;DE bearings=6310 ZC3; Cooling Method=IC411 ;
Kindly suggest me to procure the proposed one or not and request you to give the detailed articles regarding selection of different motors with known motor.

54. cameron
Jun 22, 2014

Hey guys. I need help on developing a distance relay in Matlab/Simulink. Can anyone perhaps assist me?

55. Vele
Jun 19, 2014

Hi Sir,
I’d like to know more about earthing transformers and neutral grounding resistors, their applications and why they are required. You have any information on this that can be useful for my project?

• nbn
Aug 28, 2015

Any of the trafo needs to be grounded that is 2 earth pit of neutral earthing & 2 earth pit of body earthing.

& neutral grounding resistor(NGR) panels are provided in HT DG panels

56. Chanh
Jun 01, 2014

Hi Sir,

i would like to know how to choose correct capacitor for run or start motor and can i use large or small capacitor than the existing one for motor

57. vaishnavi
Feb 14, 2014

hi
its really very useful
can u help me in my project tat is gsm based power sharing of transformer with automatic load shedding system. can u give me detailed information about this.

58. duru jonathan
Feb 14, 2014

I want to know more about how to read and solve a fault on electrical diagram.

Oct 13, 2013

Thank you for the very useful information.

60. Hariprakash
Aug 17, 2013

Hello sir! i feel difficult to understand some concepts of Elec.engg like vector fields in electroagnetic theory,and finding hard to apply in problems,so my request is please make arrangements as these concepts are very important for an Elec.engg students.and also it will be useful for other students.

Jan 30, 2013

i am actually working on my project titled electrical design for an office building. I would like to know the recent technology available for cable laying and other safety equipments,

62. I.P.
Jan 14, 2013

Thank You Very Much for this vast collection of resources.
It’s Very helpful to EE students and licensure exam takers.

63. ajit.atp
Jan 13, 2013

Hello Sir
I am very much thank ful to you for your information.I hope others also gain knowledge from this.Thank u sir.

64. ESSA
Jan 05, 2013

You are the best Edvard!

• Edvard
Jan 05, 2013

Thanks ESSA, very kind of you!

65. ABD ELWAHID ELTAHIR
Dec 25, 2012

• Edvard
Dec 25, 2012

Thank you! Very kind of you!

Jan 23, 2017

I want to know how the master switch wired, hoping your response …

66. cisnatel
Jun 19, 2012

Thank you very much.

67. Edvard
May 13, 2012

Thank you all!!

68. hamed
May 12, 2012

Your great and hard efforts too much appreciated .

69. Ralvarez
May 11, 2012

I would like to thank you all for all this serious and helpful information

70. lehuan
May 01, 2012

Thank you very much.

71. prodaja
Apr 26, 2012

Great work, thank you very much!

• victor navarrete
Dec 17, 2019

thank you very much to guiv me information about electrical engineering, soon i im going to ask about substation equipment testen , like hipot test
and grounding test