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Home / Download Center / Electrical Engineering Books and Technical Guides / Power substation guides, research papers and studies (4)

Introduction to IEC 61850

Power system and industrial-based electrical protection has evolved over the past three decades from electromechanical to microprocessor-based relays. With the advent of microprocessor-based relays, more advanced protections schemes that correctly identify faults in acceptable timeframes have been developed.

Power substation guides, research papers and studies [4]
Power substation guides, research papers and studies [4] (photo credit: Thai Technic Power And Service Co.,Ltd)

As microprocessor-based relay technology has evolved, so too have communication networks for electrical protection. Electrical protection architectures have developed from hard-wired contacts to communication networks over serial communications such as Modbus.

Serial communication has evolved to communication schemes over the TCP/IP stack such as Modbus TCP and DNP3 LAN/WAN, which now allows substations devices to communicate in a peer-to-peer fashion to share data.

With power systems being the second largest North American vertical growth industry behind oil and gas, world market leaders are participating in the power system market place. Furthermore, the mining industry is the largest consumer of electric power in the world.

Because of an increase in vendors and growing complexity of interfaces for power system protection equipment, IEC 61850 was developed as a global standard for substation communications. Now that technology in time synchronization, protection, and fast acting circuit breakers currently exists, a truly automated substation can be realized with the implementation of IEC 61850 across multiple equipment manufacturers.

The implementation of IEC 61850 also benefits automation and control companies as they now can spend resources developing SCADA systems, as well as other data collection and historian systems, that interface to multiple devices over one common protocol.

This allows for better Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) as well as faceplates for operators to read and control relay operations in a substation environment.

Note that all documents in this section are free to download.

No. Description Download
1 Reactive power control in distribution substations (design and economics)
Due to system expansion without proper and adequate planning and financial provision for the works in time, a large number of distribution systems have run into problems such as poor voltage regulation…
2 Design guide to advanced distribution automation in secondary substations
The goal of Distribution Automation in the Utility grid is real-time adjustment to changing loads, distributed generation, and failure conditions within the Distribution grid…
3 IEC 61850 for digital substation automation systems
IEC 61850 is a relatively new international standard, which has been developed to define the communication infrastructure within the substation for the first version, and has been…
4 Monitoring, controlling and automation of secondary substations
The power system was designed for a unidirectional power flow from the power plants to the end-consumer over different voltage levels. The secondary substation is the interface…
5 Substation automation based on PLCs and SCADA system
Reliability, a large installed base, extensive support resources and low costs are some of the benefits of using PLCs as a basis for substation automation and SCADA systems…
6 Case study of distribution substation adapting IEC 61850 protection system
Existing substation technology has a lot of issues in terms of designing and installing field wiring, and the number of protective relays required for protection…
7 Dangerous contact currents induced by electrical field in 400 kV substations
Every kind of task in a substation will give exposure to different levels of electric and magnetic field as well as contact currents. The major part of exposure levels and time…
8 How to perform diagnostic testing of HV circuit breakers
Understanding diagnostic testing of HV Circuit Breakers is essential. When diagnostic tests are performed on HV Circuit Breakers, valuable information can be extracted…
9 Analysis and detection of potential security threats to a digital substation
Power system operators in a utility require not only comprehensive backgrounds in the physical monitoring of field devices, but also cyber monitoring of intelligent electronic…
10 Power transformer testing procedures and schemes
A partial discharge measurement (PD‐measurement) is a nondestructive tool used to establish the condition of a transformer insulation system. The goal of partial discharge…
11 Design and electrical calculations for 110(220)/35/10 kV power substation
There are different classifications of power substations, which might be used in network. They might be classified by their function, amount of transformers, total power…
12 Design of an improved distribution substation in the city of Ethiopia
The main objective of this thesis work is to investigate and address the problems that consumers face due to the present state of the power distribution problem in the city…
13 How reliable are modern substation automation systems?
Typical power substations are supposed to receive, transform the electricity either by stepping up or down the voltage and then send it forward. Substations designed in the past made use…
14 IEC 61850 in mine electrical distribution, automation and control systems
The IEC 61850 standard provides a mechanism for interoperability, i.e., the ability for information from Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) from multiple manufacturers…
15 Analysis of the effect of capacitor switching transient on a grid substation (case study)
Main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of switching of the breaker switched capacitor (BSC) banks to the power quality and also to identify solutions for existing power…
16 The essence of digital substation automation: Timing precision & real-time data
Almost all substation protection and control applications require accurate time-stamping. The performance of systems such as Network Time Protocol (NTP), IRIG-B and one pulse per…
17 Design and analysis of digital communication protocols in substation automation systems
Substations in electrical grids are devices which are used for connecting transmission and distribution lines. They are used in transmission and distribution of power…
18 The basics of power transformers in electrical T&D grids
A transformer is a four-terminal device that transforms an AC input voltage into a higher or lower AC output voltage. It transforms power from a particular circuit to another…
19 The study of 220kV power substation (equipment details)
The present-day electrical power system is A.C. i.e. electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at…
20 Testing the performance of IEC 61850 substation automation designs
The objective of this project is to construct a test facility for assessing the performance of IEC 61850 substation automation designs. This project will focus more closely at the…
21 Design process for the new primary substation (structure selection and calculations)
The scope of this thesis is to study and develop methodology by which techno/economical dimensioning of primary substation in power system can be done…
22 Basic power substation theory for students
Oil filled transformer makes use of oil for the cooling of major parts of a transformer. Oil filled transformers are transformers filled with a highly refined mineral oil that is used to insulate…
23 Training report on 400/220/132 kV switchyard in India (design and engineering)
400 kv Agra substation is one of the most important substation in India and it belongs to the largest power grid in the north India. The whole substation is divided in three parts: 400kV, 220kV and 132kV switchyard…
24 Preventive maintenance of substation equipment and transmission lines
The main advantage of Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) is its high reliability and also compactness which has direct influence on land requirement, land cost, environmental…
25 MV application guide for engineers to select and specify the right equipment
Standard IEC 62271-1 defines standard ratings for medium voltage switchgear. Full name of this standard is ‘High-voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 1: Common specifications…
26 Fault current selection for a circuit breaker from a substation layout
The fault analysis of a power system is required in order to provide information for the selection of switchgear, setting of relays and stability of system operation…
27 Intelligent distribution automation of MV/LV transformer stations at LV networks
Unlike passive filters, active filters do not produce connection overvoltages, because the charge will not be trapped in capacitors similarly. The typical structure of active filters…
28 Improved maintenance of secondary substations using grid digitalization benefits
The digitalization of the network is, in general terms, to increase the level of automation and observability of the grid. Digitalization not only is applied at electrical networks but also in…
29 Implementation of modern interlocking and data acquisition in HV system
The international IEC 61850 standard sets frames for Substation Communications Networks and Systems. IEC 61850 consists of different parts ranging from the requirements on…
30 Achieving the future-proof architecture of a distribution substation automation
This thesis investigates how station-level data processing can be utilized to help in creating a future-proof architecture for the secondary system of a distribution substation. The needed technology…
31 Control and synchronization of a marine substation
The world´s energy system is today addicted to fossil fuels. 70-80% of the total consumed energy comes from oil or coal. The combustion of oil and coal release heat which can be…
32 Power loss measurements in medium voltage switchgear (RMU – Ring Main Unit)
Switchgear is exposed to electrical and mechanical stress. Stress is a mechanism that reduces the lifetime of the switchgear. Typical stress factors are abnormal environment or…
33 Monitoring system to measure disturbances at LV and MV side of secondary substation
Secondary substation which is the focus of this thesis is the interface between the MV and LV network. In Finland, it typically transforms the voltage level from medium voltage (20 kV)…
34 Design guidelines for substation and power distribution systems of buildings
This guide enables its readers to assess electrical load of a building and thus enabling to find out the required capacity of the switchgears, transformers etc. It deals with 33 kV/11 kV…
35 Installation and commissioning of 11/0.43 kV substation
The decision of a MV or LV supply will depend on local circumstances and considerations such as those mentioned above, and will generally be imposed by the utility…
36 Condition monitoring and diagnostic techniques for MV vacuum switchgear
The MV vacuum circuit breaker yearly failure rates published in the latest international standards are in the 0.1-3% range. The failure rates are highly influenced by environmental…
37 Cyber intrusions into substations of a power grid and proposed security framework
The cyber security of power substations has been recognized as a critical issue since it consists of various types of critical physical and cyber devices. They can be physically or…
38 Design, installation, testing and maintenance of main earthing systems in substations
During the passage of earth-fault current a substation earth electrode is subjected to an earth potential rise (EPR). Potential gradients develop in the surrounding ground area…
39 Handbook for application of neutral earthing resistors (NERs) at the substation
There are two main approaches generally adopted when applying impedance earthing techniques: one NER per transformer unit and one NER per substation serving one or more…
40 Testing the multi-vendor substation automation system implemented with IEC 61850
The IEC 61850 substation automation system configuration differences from earlier conventions. The configuration order of an SAS goes from larger entities to more detailed…
41 Ethernet in substation automation applications – Issues and requirements
This paper looks at the key issues and requirements for Ethernet in the substation environment and for substation automation applications requiring real-time performance…
42 Impact of maintenance toward aging of substation equipment and economic cost
When make maintenance related decisions for entire system other than single equipment, it is desired to know the expected system reliability improvement and cost…
43 IEC 61850 based GOOSE messaging in arc protection of LV/MV switchgear
An arc fault in medium voltage or low voltage switchgear is one of the most devastating fault types in power systems. Term ‘arc flash explosion’ is a good characterization of the fault…

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