Protection Relays

The relay is a well known and widely used component. Applications range from classic panel built control systems to modern inrefaces between control microprocessors and their power circuits or any application where reliable galvanic separation is required between different circuits.

(Protection) Relay Guides
(Protection) Relay Guides

Altough considered to be a relatively simple component, the electromechanical relay and its technology is complex and often misundestood.

History of relay

The earliest electrical relays were developed in the 1830s, as people began to recognize that such switches could be extremely useful. Historically, electrical relays were often made with electromagnets, which continue to be used today, although for some applications solid state relays are preferred. They key difference between electromagnetic and solid state options is that electromagnetic relays have moving parts, and solid state relays do not.

Electromagnets also conserve more energy than their solid state counterparts do.

Usage of relay

One of the reasons an electrical relay is such a popular tool for electricians and engineers is that it can control electrical output which is higher than the electrical input it receives. In the example discussed above, if the ignition connected directly to the battery, heavy duty insulated wiring would be needed to connect the steering column to the battery, and the ignition switch would also need to be much more robust.

By using a relay, relatively lightweight wiring can be used, saving space and increasing vehicle safety.

A variety of circuits can be connected to an electrical relays. Relays can be used as amplifiers for electrical energy, as in the car example, and they can also connect to things like alarm switches, activating when a circuit is broken to trigger an alarm.

Many electrical failsafe systems utilize electrical relays which turn on or off in response to things like a current overload, irregular current, and other issues which may arise. These electrical relays trip to shut the system down until the problem can be addressed.

All documents, EE software and EE books are free to download.

1Relay Selection Guide
2Distance Relay Fundamentals
3Line Protection With Distance Relays
4Electrical Relay Diagram and P&ID Symbols New
5The philosophy of protective relaying New
6The Art and Science of Protective Relaying
7Protective Relaying – Principles and Applications
8Transmission Line Protection Principles
9Electrical Plan Review Booklet star
10The Basics Of Power System Protective Relaying
11Schematic Representation Of Power System Relaying New star
12Guide to protection of power systems with distributed generation New
13Operation, maintenance, and field test procedures for protective relays New
14Basic principles in modern substation automation protection systems New
15Guide through applications for SIPROTEC protection relays New
16Lecture notes on switchgear and protection devices for students New
17Calculation and prevention of short circuit currents in high voltage grids
18Line protection calculations and setting guidelines for relays installed at 765kV, 400kV, 220kV transmission systems
19Design Considerations For Protection System Of a Geothermal Power Plant
20Generating Power Plant and Transmission System Protection Coordination
21The Basics Of Overcurrent Protection
22Ground Fault Protection of Overhead Transmission Lines (Focus On Distance Relays)
23Principles and protection applications of low-impedance bus differential relay
24How to design Bay Control Unit (BCU) in a substation automation system
25Simulation of protection system with a source, circuit breaker, transformer and motor
26Circulating current scheme using IEC 61850 and relay logic for junior & graduate engineers
27Overcurrent and differential digital protective relays with monitoring capabilities
28132kV and 22kV busbar protection schemes of the new Hong Kong Electric’s stations
28Symmetrical components theoretical and real-world examples for relay engineers

Relay book

2Relays – General
3Electromechanical Relays
4Contact System
5Magnetic System – Coil
6Mechanical Components
7Handling and Use in Production
8Quality Aspects
10Electronics in and around Power Relays
11Relay definitions

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Page edited by E.C. (Google).


  1. Pedro Valverde
    Nov 19, 2018

    Today (11/19/2018) you published an article on protective relays polarity. I would like to download a copy. Thankyou.

  2. dinesh
    Oct 22, 2018

    Dear sir, i would have the guideline document related to scheme preparation of protective lines , transformer , generator etc.

  3. chatha thai
    Aug 15, 2018

    I want to download this file

  4. Syed Zohaib Hassan
    May 10, 2018

    sir pls tell me how differential relay works ?

  5. Satish kumar
    Feb 09, 2018

    I have a crompton greaves drive in a equipment, i am unable to vary its speed from HMI. Also unable to find drive manual.
    Can you help with probable solution

  6. Pedro
    Aug 25, 2017

    Thanks for information

  7. Hassan M. Fallatah
    Aug 05, 2017

    Tahnk you very much for this website and for it’s team

  8. Jawaid Akhound
    Mar 05, 2017

    In India What % of T&D Losses are standardized.

    • Madhav
      Jan 11, 2018

      Hello Jawaid,
      Here is a short reply to your query..
      Here in India 33kV, 22kV and 11kV level is considered as sub-transmission or HV distribution voltage level. Being a vast country distribution network and parameters differ widely from State to State and so does the T&D loss level. The loss level (which includes losses in HV lines and LT lines) in some pockets is around 10% and even less than that. However, it is as high as 30 to 40% in some rural and remote pockets.

  9. yasaamaan
    Sep 15, 2015

    We have two Thyro-A (AEG) in our substaion and both of them flashing on pulse inhibit.
    we checked LED MESSAGES and have been detected that one of Frequency error or SYNC error can be occured, and SYNC error has more probability. If SYNC error be right fault, how can i remove it? Can you help me please?

  10. Dinu
    Aug 25, 2015

    Good work. thanks for the information

  11. Abhishek shukla
    Aug 09, 2015

    10+2 + iti electrician one year exp appertince plz sir my carreyear job requirements ho to sir plz bta na ya my number 9811092589

  12. Kousha CS
    Jul 18, 2015

    I am looking for Protection engineer who know completely about MIcom P 44 series distance Relays any body interested please contact me immediately
    Salary package will be good
    Name: koushal CS
    Mobile: 9986101267

  13. Bipin Shah
    Jun 03, 2015

    I would like to know the reason for equi- potential wires getting disconnected at CT body end from main transformer incomer feeder. Feeder tripped on transformer differential & LV side restricted earth fault protection. Pls Explain…

    • madhusudhna rao
      Aug 22, 2015

      yes it is possible, when ever equipotential ring is disconnected from ct there is a chance of occuring error on measuring of ct, actual current flow on ct and measured current on ct will differ in that situation u get the trip from both differential and ref protection.

  14. Asghar
    May 18, 2015

    please explain can we use measurement CT’s for protection relay ? if not so why ?

    • sunilkumar
      Jul 24, 2015

      because of the ct winding always short suppose it is used for protection it will be open that time huge current flow through the ckt and it will damage the property or human body.

  15. jegatheshwaran
    May 13, 2015

    i had no idea about numerical relay, please tell full detail about that how to make setting,progarmming,configuration and progarmming logic. please sir,

  16. Daniel Zebene
    Apr 11, 2015

    thanks u very much, I am interested for particpate and to became member of this website.

  17. syed aijaz mohiuddin
    Sep 13, 2014

    please, can u give me the details of dry type transformer for the maintenance point of view.and also the over -under voltage relay…feeder protection relays..
    thanking you..

  18. iman ramang
    Aug 19, 2014

    As i know for Voltage Drop maximum allowable on VAC is 5%

  19. Moloi
    Jun 12, 2014

    What is the recommended voltage drop in Alternating Current{AC} and Direct current {DC}

  20. hadi218
    Jul 12, 2013

    Thanks for information

  21. Avinash
    Feb 26, 2013

    can any one share “pilot protective relaying by walter Elmore” or “Numerical Differential Protection by Gerhard Zeigler”

  22. kalkish
    Aug 08, 2012

    Good site..Happy to see that the data are given thro industrial products(GE,Siemens,ABB like)

  23. marg
    Jul 16, 2012

    i want all information about relays.and specially information on ‘numerical relay protection for motor’

  24. bahaa91
    Apr 26, 2012

    Congratulations for this website
    This website is very helpful
    B R I

  25. Bishoy
    Mar 29, 2012

    Congratulations for this website
    This website is very helpful

  26. Vinay Kumar
    Feb 07, 2012

    Good Job boss, really inspired especially application enginners like us….

    Jan 11, 2012

    You have done a excellent job. This website is very useful for begineers and even for expert as well.

  28. seanmoo
    Jan 07, 2012

    Just joined after seeing reference on Linkedin and really impressed by the sites contents. Great work.


  29. harjit
    Dec 13, 2011

    dear u really did great job ., i just want to know that ,can you provide me some elecrical formules for calculation for relay , like for didtance protection relay , or diff. protection relay
    thnx a lot

    • Edvard
      Dec 13, 2011

      Thank you for kind words Harjit! I wrote down your request, and I’ll try to find something.


  30. Gilmar
    Oct 28, 2011

    Congratulations for this website .


    São Paulo -Brazil

    • Edvard
      Oct 28, 2011

      Thank you Gilmar! Me and my team did a great efforts to make EEP to be like it is now.


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