## Tap-Changer Adjustment

A **13800V/4160 V** transformer has **five taps** on the primary winding giving **-5%**, **-2 1/2 %, nominal**, **+2 1/2 %** and **+5 % turns**.

If, on-load, the secondary voltage reduces to **4050 V** then, which tap, should be used to maintain **4160 V on-load** (assuming the supply voltage remains constant)?

**The following answer results:**

**Examining the relationship:**

**V _{1}/V_{2} = N_{1}/N_{2}** or

**V**indicates that, to keep the equation in balance with primary voltage and secondary winding turns fixed, either V

_{1}·N_{2}= V_{2}·N_{1}_{2}or N

_{1}must be adjusted. Since the objective is to raise V

_{2}back to nominal, then N

_{1}must be reduced.

To raise V_{2}from 4050 to 4160V requires an increase in secondary volts of:4160/4050 = 1.027or102.7 %. N_{1}must be reduced to 1/1.027 =0.974

_{1}must be reduced by (1 – 0.974) =

**0.026 or 2.6 %**.

**Reducing N**will accomplish the increase in secondary voltage output.

_{1}by 2.6 %### The nearest tap to select is -2 1/2% (see Figure 1).

### How tap-changer works (VIDEO)

**Reference:** Science and Reactor Fundamentals – Electrical / CNSC Technical Training Group

Dear sir,

It’s very useful to us. I have one inquiry, how will the taping percentages +5%,+2.5%,-2.5%, and -5% be calculated?

The number of turns between each tap is 28 turns , the transformer voltage 11kv/0.416 kv , five taping in total +5 % and -5% , how I calculate the HV total turns ?

Hello Daniel,

(V1/V2)=(N1/N2) ie., In order to decrease the secondary output voltage, we need to increase the number of turns in the primary winding (Since, N1 is inversely proportional to V2).

Now, To reduce 443 volts to 415 volts requires a decrease in secondary volts of 415/443 = 0.936 or 93.6%

The number of turns in the primary winding has to be increased to 1/0.936 = 1.068 or 106.8%

Hence, N1 must be increased by 6.8% and the nearest tapping to select in this transformer is +5%

so is it possible in this tap changing that this nominal voltage must decrease, what if this voltage increases from 415v to 443v how do you tap change this, based on your above calculations given. That is to reduce 443v to 415v how is this done, please I will need the calculation if possible with a diagram illustration as u showed earlier above.

Thankyou

How to calculate the value of transition resistance of an OLTC of a 66Kv/22kv transformer. Thank you in advance

good

How are setting of the OLTC output voltage?

i need formula to set value in RTCC like: Lower,Raise, PV value, to fix LT value. Transformer 11000/415

how to calculate % impedance,%reactance

in 33kV/433V tranformer if secondary voltage reduce from 433V to 405V ,Any consumption reduce .

You need to reduce your tap by 6.46%, nearest tap is at -7.5%.

V1/V2 = N1/N2

V1*N2 = V2*N1

TAP%= (Vmeasure -Vrate)/ Vrate

= (405 – 433)/433 = -6.46, we select the nearest value

(by means N1 to be reduce by -5)

Taps on HV winding are provided for variation of HV volts. It may not be good practice to change the taps for reduced LV volts. Though , the extent to which the variation is proposed is Ok. The transformer should be designed suitable for variation of LV volts with taps on HV.

Nice article but I don’t understand the need to take the inverse of the turns ratio (1.027). Pls explain n thanks

Kazim, the ratio of secondary windings to primary windings needs to increase by 1.027. If the transformer in question had multiple taps on the output, we would select the tap closest to +2.7%. Since the secondary doesn’t have multiple taps, we’re stuck with 1/1.027 times as many windings as we’d like on the secondary, so the number of primary windings has to be reduced accordingly.

Put another way, we want N2actual/N1actual = 1.027*N2nominal/N1nominal, and we’re constrained by N2actual=N2nominal. Solving this system of equations for the ratio of actual to nominal primary windings yields N1actual/N1nominal = 1/1.027.

What would be th off-nominal transformation ratio of the transformer shown in the example?

Its all ok as explained, kindly also tell about the how we would come to know that tap has been set physically ok to achieve the result, and what would be the risk of operating at higher taps on transformer life.