### Formulas

When a voltage **V** causes a current **I** to flow through a reactive load **Z**, the complex power **S** is:

**S = VI*** where **I*** is the conjugate of the complex current **I**.

#### Inductive Load

**Z = R + jX _{L}**

**I = I _{P} – jI_{Q}**

**cosf = R / |Z|** (lagging)

**I* = I _{P} + jI_{Q}**

**S = P + jQ**

An inductive load is a sink of lagging VArs (a source of leading VArs).

#### Capacitive Load

**Z = R – jX _{C}**

**I = I _{P} + jI_{Q}**

**cosf = R / |Z|** (leading)

**I* = I _{P} – jI_{Q}**

**S = P – jQ**

A capacitive load is a source of lagging VArs (a sink of leading VArs).

NOTATION |
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The symbol font is used for some notation and formulae. If the Greek symbols for alpha beta delta do not appear here [ a b d ] the symbol font needs to be installed for correct display of notation and formulae. |
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BCEfGhIjLPQ |
susceptance capacitance voltage source frequency conductance h-operator current j-operator inductance active power reactive power |
[siemens, S] [farads, F] [volts, V] [hertz, Hz] [siemens, S] [1Ð120°] [amps, A] [1Ð90°] [henrys, H] [watts, W] [VAreactive, VArs] |
QRStVWXYZfw |
quality factor resistance apparent power time voltage drop energy reactance admittance impedance phase angle angular frequency |
[number] [ohms, W] [volt-amps, VA] [seconds, s] [volts, V] [joules, J] [ohms, W] [siemens, S] [ohms, W] [degrees, °] [rad/sec] |

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