The design of commercial facilities
This technical article covers some specific considerations (modern power supply, electric distribution, transportation, lighting controls, and communication systems) for a few most common type of commercial facilities such as banks, colleges and universities, fire stations, health care facilities and office buildings.
Electrical designers of industrial and commercial buildings can organize their design criteria into three broad classes:
- Requirements set by relevant codes at a bare minimum
- Trustworthiness of service and backup plans adaptability to new circumstances
- Comfort, ease of use, and reliability of the system
The designer must have sound judgement and the ability to market their designs. The designer must convince the building owner and the electric utility company of the necessity of include the service capacity for anticipated future loads in the initial installation, as well as of making provisions for facility extensions at a later date.
The appropriate regulatory codes often provide the minimum standards. The design engineer must first identify the authorities that have authority over the building, and then make contact with them to learn more about the local legislation that will be implemented.
- Colleges and Universities
- Fire Stations
- Health Care Facilities
- Hospitals and Clinics
- Patient Safety
- Standby Generators, UPS and Essential Electric Systems
- Life Safety and “Defend in Place” Strategy
- Power Quality and Medical Equipment Issues
- Communication, Information, and Signaling Systems
- Special Lighting in Hospitals
- Clinics, Medical & Dental Offices, and Ambulatory Surgery Centers
- Office Buildings (Power Service, Loads, Locations)
We love them and we do hate them at the same time. However, the banks are likely to include expressive architecture. Banks nowadays typically have an open floor plan with movable partitions. Outdoor and indoor lighting should compliment the architectural design.
Floodlighting the building for ornamental purposes may necessitate provisions for supplying power away from the premises. The use of electric signs and directional indications for night banking may necessitate the installation of underground cable before to the construction of walkways and driveways. Lighting, connectivity, and closed-circuit television may be required for remote teller drive-in islands for banking directly from automobiles.
Electric heating, ventilation, and air conditioning are required as well.
Although not physically located in the bank, remotely located computers to allow customer transactions may necessitate many of the same amenities as indicated above.
General illumination in the main area is included in indoor lighting. Spotlights and floodlights can be used with high ceilings. Indirect lighting is another option. Because visual activities are taxing and computer monitor displays can be difficult to read, teller counters should be carefully lit to reduce shadows and glare.
Closed-circuit television provisions for banks with several branches should not be disregarded.
Figure 1 – An example of electrical layout of the bank
Alarm and communication systems, both visual and audio, are critical in today’s bank. Security and alarm systems are typically not included in the construction contract; nonetheless, tight collaboration with bank-selected vendors is required to ensure that appropriate and correctly situated raceways are incorporated in the structure. Computer systems and huge data rooms should all have extensive communications provisions.
Specific power requirements, such as isolated grounds and dedicated grounds, may be necessary. Computer terminal equipment at tellers’ windows will almost certainly be necessary. Power and data circuits may be required as well.
Closed-circuit television is utilized for both money checks and guard observation and protection. Together with video capture, automatic still cameras are frequently used.
There could be a huge number of business machines in the accounting department. Power, data, and communication cables can be installed and rearranged using an underfloor duct system or a raised floor (access floor) system that is at least 6 inches high.
A central air-conditioning plant might serve the entire structure. Individual units may be employed in smaller buildings. Control centers should be utilized in central facilities to display the status of blowers, pumps, and compressor units, as well as temperatures, pressures, and so on.