Individual tests or routine verifications are intended to check the essential safety aspects of LV assemblies that could be affected by hazards during mounting or possible manufacturing faults. In principle,… Read more
Most practical power system problems are solved by using steady state analytical methods. These methods make the assumption that circuit parameters are linear, bilateral, and constant for constant frequency circuit… Read more
Distribution substations with installed power of 2×1600 kVA are typical example of electrical power supply facilities which can be often seen all around the Europe and wider. By “calculation” of such a substation, it is assumed that...
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Generally speaking, distribution substations should be designed with redundancy allowing a portion of feeders to remain energized if any major component fails or is taken out of service for maintenance…. Read more
Electrical systems within a nuclear power plant (NPP) deserve significant design considerations. The availability of on-site as well as off-site power plays a crucial role in nuclear power plant safety… Read more
This technical article provides three examples of the application of modern relays to transformer protection. As there are many modern protection relays nowadays that provide advanced software to simplify the… Read more
This technical article describes single line diagrams of two typical power substations 66/11 kV and 11/0.4 kV and their power flow, principles of incoming lines (incomers) and outgoing lines (feeders),… Read more