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In this case study we describe a 13.8 kV switchgear phase-to-phase fault due to by heavy rain evolving into a three-phase fault that was cleared by transformer numerical relays. The…...
May 17, 2019 | Premium Content ♛
Electric distribution system is all of that part of an electric power system between the bulk power source or sources and the consumers’ service switches. The bulk power sources are… Read more
May 15, 2019 | Power Substation
The degree of transformer protection provided depends to a great extent upon the size and functional importance of the unit. A further important factor is the economic aspect. The cost… Read more
May 13, 2019 | Protection
Individual tests or routine verifications are intended to check the essential safety aspects of LV assemblies that could be affected by hazards during mounting or possible manufacturing faults. In principle,… Read more
May 08, 2019 | Low Voltage
Most practical power system problems are solved by using steady state analytical methods. These methods make the assumption that circuit parameters are linear, bilateral, and constant for constant frequency circuit… Read more
May 06, 2019 | Electrical Lectures
Distribution substations with installed power of 2×1600 kVA are typical example of electrical power supply facilities which can be often seen all around the Europe and wider. By “calculation” of such a substation, it is assumed that...
May 02, 2019 | Low Voltage ♛
Generally speaking, distribution substations should be designed with redundancy allowing a portion of feeders to remain energized if any major component fails or is taken out of service for maintenance…. Read more
May 01, 2019 | Power Substation
Electrical systems within a nuclear power plant (NPP) deserve significant design considerations. The availability of on-site as well as off-site power plays a crucial role in nuclear power plant safety… Read more
Apr 29, 2019 | Energy Generation
Ultra-high voltage (UHV) AC gas insulated switchgear (GIS) can corrctly work only if all its internal components are properly assembled and the metal enclosure is filled with SF6 gas at…...
Apr 25, 2019 | High Voltage ♛
The AC secondary network system is the system that has been used for many years to distribute electric power in the high-density, downtown areas of cities, usually in the form… Read more
Apr 24, 2019 | Power Substation
This technical article provides three examples of the application of modern relays to transformer protection. As there are many modern protection relays nowadays that provide advanced software to simplify the… Read more
Apr 22, 2019 | Protection
This technical article describes single line diagrams of two typical power substations 66/11 kV and 11/0.4 kV and their power flow, principles of incoming lines (incomers) and outgoing lines (feeders),… Read more
Apr 17, 2019 | Electrical Lectures
High voltage substations are pretty complex to understand since they have a way too many elements and each element is complex for itself and it depends on many system parameters… Read more
Apr 15, 2019 | Electrical Lectures
Single line diagrams are used in common engineering practice as graphical representation of electrical switchboard or assembly containing more sections, i.e. cubicles. Basically, they are simplified and digest picture of…...
Apr 12, 2019 | Low Voltage ♛
It’s extremely important to work on selective coordination of circuit breakers in the design phase of a system. After switchboards, distribution panels, MCCs, lighting switchboards, etc. are installed, there typically… Read more
Apr 10, 2019 | Energy and Power