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Technical Articles

High Voltage

GIS vs AIS – Life cycle assessment

In order to ensure the future supply of electricity we require sustainable concepts that preserve resources and do not harm our environment. Humankind needs a reliable and secure power supply… Read more

Jul 14, 2011 | By Edvard

gis-vs-ais-life-cycle-assessment
Energy and Power

Fire Protection Measures

The measures to mitigate or lessen fire hazards are normally called “fire protection measures”. The National Fire Protection Association NFPA (U.S. organization charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and… Read more

Jul 13, 2011 | By Edvard

Fire Protection Measures
High Voltage

Power Fuses in High Voltage

Power fuses are a generally accepted means of protecting power transformers in distribution substations. The primary purpose of a power fuse is to provide interruption of permanent faults. Fusing is… Read more

Jul 11, 2011 | By Edvard

power-fuses-in-high-voltage
Solar Power

Long history of solar energy

As with hydropower, solar energy has a long history. Many pre-historic cultures used it to warm their dwellings, dry their clothes, and cure their food. The importance of solar energy… Read more

Jul 10, 2011 | By Edvard

Figure 1: Mesa Verde cliff dwellings
Energy and Power

Generator tripping as stability control

Generator tripping is an effective (cost-effective) control especially if hydro units are used. Tripping of fossil units, especially gas- or oil-fired units, may be attractive if tripping to house load… Read more

Jul 06, 2011 | By Edvard

Axial flow francis hydraulic hydro-turbine generator set
SCADA

SCADA communication vulnerabilities

Cyber security engineering is expensive. However, the presence of vulnerabilities requires it. In this section we list vulnerabilities we typically see in SCADA systems. The order in the list of… Read more

Jul 04, 2011 | By Edvard

SCADA communication vulnerabilities
Electronics

Designing Raw DC Power Supplies

Every type of electrical or electronic apparatus needs a source of electrical energy to function. The source of electrical energy is called the power supply. The two main classifications of… Read more

Jul 03, 2011 | By Sa'ad Eddin

Designing Raw DC Power Supplies
Energy and Power

Fuel cells in power section

In 1839, a British Jurist and an amateur physicist named William Grove first discovered the principle of the fuel cell. Grove utilized four large cells, each containing hydrogen and oxygen,… Read more

Jul 01, 2011 | By Edvard

The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells
Wind Power

Large and Small Wind Turbines are Different

Wind turbines are generally divided into two broad categories based on their rated capacity and their intended applications. Small wind turbines are typically less than 50 kW in size, but… Read more

Jun 29, 2011 | By Edvard

Large and Small Wind Turbines are Different
Energy and Power

Who was James Prescott Joule?

James Prescott Joule was born on Christmas Eve 1818 into a wealthy Salford brewing family. A sickly child, he was tutored at home where he indulged his fascination for electricity… Read more

Jun 27, 2011 | By Edvard

James Prescott Joule
Biomass Energy

Typical applications of biomass

During Second World War the gasifiers were mainly employed for transportation purposes. However, in recent years the gasifiers have been employed mainly for stationary applications. For generating electricity, the producer… Read more

Jun 26, 2011 | By Edvard

Typical applications of biomass


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