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Learn about power engineering and HV/MV/LV substations. Study specialized technical articles, electrical guides, and papers.

Technical Articles

D’Arsonval Meter Movement

The most commonly used sensing mechanism used in DC ammeters, voltmeters, and ohm meters is a current-sensing device called a D’Arsonval meter movement (Figure 1). The D’Arsonval movement is a… Read more

Mar 08, 2011 | Metering

Figure 1 - D’Arsonval Meter Movement

Early years of Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla was born “at the stroke of midnight” with lightning striking during a summer storm. He was born in Croatia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The midwife commented, “He’ll be… Read more

Mar 05, 2011 | Energy and Power

Nikola Tesla - Early Years

Economics of GIS

The equipment cost of GIS is naturally higher than that of AIS due to the grounded metal enclosure, the provision of an LCC, and the high degree of factory assembly…. Read more

Mar 04, 2011 | High Voltage

SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) - Mitsubishi Electric

How To Use A Digital Multimeter

A digital multimeter is used to make various electrical measurements, such as AC and DC voltage, AC and DC current, and resistance. It is called a multimeter because it combines… Read more

Feb 23, 2011 | Metering

How to use digital multimeter

Protection Relay – ANSI Standards

In the design of electrical power systems, the ANSI Standard Device Numbers denote what features a protective device supports (such as a relay or circuit breaker). These types of devices… Read more

Feb 22, 2011 | Energy and Power

ANSI codes for protection relays

What Is Modulation?

Modulation is the use of one electrical signal to “control” a primary variable of another. For example, if an audio signal voltage is used to control the “amplitude” of a… Read more

Feb 20, 2011 | Electronics

Modulation - addition of information (or the signal) to an electronic or optical signal carrier

IP Protection Degree (IEC 60529) Explained

The protection of enclosures against ingress of dirt or against the ingress of water is defined in IEC529 (BSEN60529:1991). Conversely, an enclosure which protects equipment against ingress of particles will… Read more

Feb 19, 2011 | IEC Standards

IP Protection Degree (IEC 60529) Explained

Technology Innovation Is Everybody’s Business!

For close to 10,000 years, science and technology have been at the heart of economic growth and social prosperity. From the agricultural revolution to the information revolution, advances in society… Read more

Feb 18, 2011 | Energy and Power

Technology Innovation

What Light Source To Choose?

One of the first decisions in the design of a good lighting system is the choice of a light source. A number of light sources are available, each with its… Read more

Feb 17, 2011 | Lighting

Light Sources and Lamp Characteristics


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