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Technical Articles

High Voltage

AIS – Air insulated substations

In large, modern AC power systems, the transmission and distribution systems function to deliver bulk power from generating sources to users at the load centers. Transmission systems generally include generation… Read more

Sep 06, 2011 | By Edvard

Air Insulated Packaged Substations and Components
Power Substation

Animal deterrents and security in substation

The vast majority of electrical utility substations designed to transform transmission voltages to distribution class voltages employ an open-air design. The configurations may vary, but usually consist of equipment that… Read more

Sep 05, 2011 | By Edvard

Six-foot black snake the culprit in power outage
Energy and Power

Ohm’s Law – The Resistance

It is intuitive that voltage and current would be somehow related. For example, if the potential difference between two ends of a wire is increased, we would expect a greater… Read more

Sep 02, 2011 | By Edvard

Megger device

Bus protection – Overcurrent differential

When selecting relays for bus protection, a major concern is the ability of the protective relaying scheme to restrain from tripping for close-in line faults. Tripping for bus faults, the… Read more

Aug 31, 2011 | By Edvard

Energy and Power

Surge arrester types and auxiliary equipment

Nearly 100 years ago, electrode gaps (rod, sphere, or pipe) were used to limit overvoltages on equipment (Sakshaug, 1991). Some of these systems, particularly pipe gaps, may still be in… Read more

Aug 25, 2011 | By Edvard

Lightning arrestors being installed at Kingston sub-station in 1928. Photo: ACTEA.
Energy and Power

How to save electrical energy at home

In our home we use lot of electrical equipment like TV, Freeze, Washing machine, Mp3 player, music system, computer laptop. But we have not adequate knowledge for how to use… Read more

Aug 23, 2011 | By jiguparmar

How to save Electrical energy at Home
High Voltage

Capacitor protection by surge arresters – ABB

Generally speaking, capacitor protection by surge arresters has been a difficult task before ZnO arresters became available. The high discharge currents and possible energies associated with an arrester operation at… Read more

Aug 22, 2011 | By Edvard

Capacitor protection by surge arresters
Energy and Power

Autotransformers in few words

It is possible to obtain transformer action by means of a single coil, provided that there is a “tap connection” somewhere along the winding. Transformers having only one winding are… Read more

Aug 19, 2011 | By Edvard

Autotransformers in few words
Industrial Automation

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 4

Continued from How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads – Part 3 » Read here Once the worm has a foothold in the Perimeter Network, it would attempt to infect any print… Read more

Aug 18, 2011 | By Edvard

How Stuxnet (PLC virus) spreads
High Voltage

Budgeting and Financing Substation

The construction of new substations and the expansion of existing facilities are commonplace projects in electric utilities. However, due to the complexity, very few utility employees are familiar with the… Read more

Aug 16, 2011 | By Edvard

Budgeting and Financing Substation
Energy and Power

Applications and forms of differential relays

Differential relays take a variety of forms, depending on the equipment they protect. The definition of such a relay is “one that operates when the vector difference of two or… Read more

Aug 15, 2011 | By Edvard

ABB Residual Current Breaker with Overload Protection RCBo
Geothermal Energy

New download – Geothermal Electricity Basics

Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy. Technologies in use include dry steam power plants, flash steam power plants and binary cycle power plants. Geothermal electricity generation is currently… Read more

Aug 14, 2011 | By Edvard

Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland

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