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Learn about power engineering and HV/MV/LV substations. Study specialized technical articles, electrical guides, and papers.

Technical Articles

iFIX Scada Features

iFIX offers a robust SCADA engine, rich set of connectivity options, open architecture and highly scalable and distributed networking model. Used in a variety of applications across diverse industries, it… Read more

Feb 15, 2011 | SCADA

iFIX Scada Features

Few Facts About Three Gorges Dam

The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest hydropower project and most notorious dam. The massive project sets records for number of people displaced (more than 1.2 million), number of… Read more

Feb 12, 2011 | Hydropower

Few Facts About Three Gorges Dam

What is the vertical illuminance?

Vertical illuminance is a component of lighting design that is vitally important to architecture. Its primary purpose is to make spatial proportions and spatial limits visible. The opposite is the… Read more

Feb 11, 2011 | Lighting

Vertical Illuminance - Introduction

Photovoltaic Module Interconnections

Copper conductors are recommended for almost all photovoltaic system wiring. Copper conductors have lower voltage drops and better resistance to corrosion than other types of comparably sized conductor materials. Aluminum… Read more

Feb 10, 2011 | Solar Power

Photovoltaic Module Interconnections

AC Vs. DC

What’s this thing about AC anyway? A little history lesson might be in order. It all started when Edison built the first incandescent bulb and the power station to light… Read more

Feb 08, 2011 | Energy and Power

AC vs. DC

Risk and Consequences Of Transformer Fire

The risk of a catastrophic fire with a properly inspected, tested, and maintained transformer is small. Proper maintenance and thorough testing of the transformer will prevent or detect many events… Read more

Feb 07, 2011 | Power Substation

Risk and Consequences Of Transformer Fire

Electrically Held Contactors – Siemens

Most lighting and heating applications require a contactor to control the loads. One type of contactor is an electrically held contactor, which is similar to a magnetic starter. Unlike a… Read more

Feb 05, 2011 | Energy and Power

Electrically Held Contactors - Siemens type CLM

Form of separation 2 – Requirements

Form 2 defines overall assemblies which are enclosed to provide protection against contact with any internal live parts or components, and where there is internal separation of the busbars from… Read more

Feb 04, 2011 | Low Voltage

Form of separation 2 - Requirements

Electrical Wire – How It’s Made

Wikipedia: Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. This article describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in… Read more

Feb 03, 2011 | Cables

The Switchboard Design Requirements

The following rules of design have to be implement in the aim to facilitate the assembly and especially the maintenance of the installation. The switchboard must be designed the way… Read more

Feb 01, 2011 | Low Voltage

Low voltage switchboard - Design requirements


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