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Learn about power engineering and HV/MV/LV substations. Study specialized technical articles, electrical guides, and papers.

Technical Articles

Risk and Consequences Of Transformer Fire

The risk of a catastrophic fire with a properly inspected, tested, and maintained transformer is small. Proper maintenance and thorough testing of the transformer will prevent or detect many events… Read more

Feb 07, 2011 | Power Substation

Risk and Consequences Of Transformer Fire

Electrically Held Contactors – Siemens

Most lighting and heating applications require a contactor to control the loads. One type of contactor is an electrically held contactor, which is similar to a magnetic starter. Unlike a… Read more

Feb 05, 2011 | Energy and Power

Electrically Held Contactors - Siemens type CLM

Form of separation 2 – Requirements

Form 2 defines overall assemblies which are enclosed to provide protection against contact with any internal live parts or components, and where there is internal separation of the busbars from… Read more

Feb 04, 2011 | Low Voltage

Form of separation 2 - Requirements

Electrical Wire – How It’s Made

Wikipedia: Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. This article describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in… Read more

Feb 03, 2011 | Cables

The Switchboard Design Requirements

The following rules of design have to be implement in the aim to facilitate the assembly and especially the maintenance of the installation. The switchboard must be designed the way… Read more

Feb 01, 2011 | Low Voltage

Low voltage switchboard - Design requirements

How To Connect Current Transformers?

The primary of a current transformer typically has only one turn. This is not really a turn or wrap around the core but just a conductor or bus going through… Read more

Jan 29, 2011 | Transformers

How To Connect Current Transformers?

How To Reduce Energy Cost?

The main motivation for decision makers to take an interest in energy control solutions is economic efficiency. When deciding whether to invest in improvement work, the manager of a building,… Read more

Jan 28, 2011 | Energy and Power

How To Reduce Energy Cost?

Form of separation 1 – Requirements

In general, the price of an Assembly will increase with increased levels of separation and/or types of construction. Choosing the arrangement with the most internal barriers will not always lead… Read more

Jan 27, 2011 | Low Voltage

Form of separation 1 - Requirements

Grounded Systems

Grounded systems are equipped with a grounded conductor that is required per NEC Section 250- 23(b) to be run to each service disconnecting means. The grounded conductor can be used… Read more

Jan 26, 2011 | Energy and Power

Price Of A Transformer

Today the production of transformers is characterised by a large variety of designs, manufactured in relatively short batches to meet the demands of a variety of customers with ever-changing expectations…. Read more

Jan 26, 2011 | Transformers

Price Of A Transformer

Ethernet History

Ethernet is the most popular and widely deployed network technology in the world. In 1973, while working on a way to link the Xerox “Alto” computer to a printer, Bob… Read more

Jan 25, 2011 | Electronics

Ethernet Plug

Geothermal Energy – The Hot Facts

The word “geothermal” comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermal (heat). It means the heat of earth. The energy potential beneath our feet, in the form of geothermal… Read more

Jan 24, 2011 | Geothermal Energy

Iceland - Geothermal Power Plant

Ecodial 3 – FAQ’s

Remark : You may renumber the functional names with the Automatic numbering of the View menu. Version 3.2 of Ecodial works from a cable database. If such a cable exists… Read more

Jan 22, 2011 | Energy and Power

Ecodial 3 - FAQ's


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