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Technical Articles

Wind Power

What Do Wind Systems Cost?

A small turbine can cost anywhere from $3,000 to $35,000 installed, depending on size, application, and service agreements with the manufacturer. (The American Wind Energy Association [AWEA] says a typical… Read more

Jan 18, 2011 | By Edvard

What Do Wind Systems Cost?
Transformers

What Are Partial Discharges On Cast Resin Transformers?

Partial discharges are electrical discharges occuring in insulating materials. The electrical discharge’s path only spans part of the insulating distance separating the conductors. The problem of partial discharges, whilst not… Read more

Jan 17, 2011 | By Edvard

Trihal transformer (IP00; IP31)
Cables

Oxidation Of Conductors

High-resistance oxides form very quickly on aluminum and copper conductors expose to air. Once the oxides are stabilized, they prevent further oxidation of the parent metal; however, due to this… Read more

Jan 16, 2011 | By Edvard

Oxidation Of Conductors
Industrial Automation

Information flow in the human-machine interface

Operators play an important part in the human-machine dialogue.They must use the information they have to perform actions that make the machines and installations run properly without endangering safety and… Read more

Jan 15, 2011 | By Edvard

Information flow in the human-machine interface
Power Substation

Security for Substation Communications

Until recently the term “security,” when applied to SCADA communication systems, meant only the process of ensuring message integrity in the face of electrical noise and other disturbances to the… Read more

Jan 13, 2011 | By Edvard

Security for Substation Communications
High Voltage

Gas-Insulated Transmission Line – GIL

The gas-insulated transmission line (GIL) is a system for the transmission of electricity at high power ratings over long distances. In cases where overhead lines are not possible, the GIL… Read more

Jan 12, 2011 | By Edvard

Gas-Insulated Transmission Line - GIL
SCADA

SCADA Security Attacks

SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes, examples of which are transmission of electricity, transportation of gas and oil in pipelines, water distribution, traffic lights, and other… Read more

Jan 10, 2011 | By Edvard

SCADA Security Attacks
Power Substation

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

There are many parameters that have an effect on the voltages in and around the substation area. Since voltages are site-dependent, it is impossible to design one grounding system that… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | By Edvard

Reasons for Substation Grounding System
Power Substation

Relationship Between Earthquakes And Substations

To secure and protect substation equipment from damage due to a seismic event, the relationship between earthquakes and substation components must first be understood. Earthquakes occur when there is a… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | By Edvard

Earthquakes And Substations
Environment

Renewables And The Impact On Environment

Alternative energy sources, especially with regard to air emissions. The likely life-cycle emissions (taking into account fuel cultivation, harvesting, collection, transportation and processing, as well as power plant construction, operation… Read more

Jan 08, 2011 | By Edvard

Energy Efficiency

NEMA TP1 Energy Efficiency Standard

Most commercial and industrial facilities require several low-voltage transformers to decrease the voltage received from the utility to the voltages used by various loads such as lighting, computers and other… Read more

Jan 08, 2011 | By Edvard

NEMA TP1 Energy Efficiency Standard
Solar Power

Solar Energy And Silver

The solar industry isn’t the largest consumer of silver, but it is a growing market that could give silver producers a boost. Most of the markets that silver serves follow… Read more

Jan 07, 2011 | By Edvard

Solar Energy And Silver
Transformers

Transformer Losses Standards

Unlike many countries around the world, Europe has no mandatory standard on energy efficiency of distribution transformers. The two main documents which describe losses in transformers are: the European Standard… Read more

Jan 07, 2011 | By Edvard

Transformer Losses Standards
High Voltage

SF6 gas as insulating and arc-quenching medium

Sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) is employed as insulation in all parts of the installation, and in the circuit-breaker also for arc-quenching. SF6 is an electronegative gas, its dielectric strength at… Read more

Jan 06, 2011 | By Edvard



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