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Technical Articles

Metering

Megger Tests

The insulation resistance meter test method for determining the condition of electrical insulation has been widely used for many years as a general nondestructive test method. A serious limitation of… Read more

Nov 26, 2010 | By Edvard

Megger
Energy and Power

Harmonic Distortion

Harmonic distortion is caused by nonlinear devices in the power system. A nonlinear device is one in which the current is not proportional to the applied voltage. Figure 1 illustrates… Read more

Nov 23, 2010 | By Edvard

harmonic_distortion
Energy and Power

Battery monitoring and maintenance guidelines

Battery monitoring has become a very popular topic, and many companies have either purchased equipment or are in the process of evaluating these systems. This article discusses why monitoring is… Read more

Nov 21, 2010 | By Edvard

Battery Monitoring And Maintenance
Energy and Power

The Need for Reactive Power Compensation

Except in a very few special situations, electrical energy is generated, transmitted, distributed, and utilized as alternating current (AC). However, alternating current has several distinct disadvantages. One of these is… Read more

Nov 19, 2010 | By Edvard

Power Factor Correction
Protection

Distance Relays

Distance relays respond to the voltage and current, i.e., the impedance, at the relay location. The impedance per mile is fairly constant so these relays respond to the distance between… Read more

Nov 12, 2010 | By Edvard

Distance relays
High Voltage

Gas-Insulated Substations – GIS

A gas-insulated substation (GIS) uses a superior dielectric gas, SF6, at moderate pressure for phase-tophase and phase-to-ground insulation. The high voltage conductors, circuit breaker interrupters, switches, current transformers, and voltage… Read more

Nov 10, 2010 | By Edvard

Gas-Insulated Substations - GIS
Lighting

Emergency lights

Indepandant emergency supply Many buildings must have some form of emergency lighting to come on if the electric supply to the ordinary lights fails. BS 5266: Emergency lighting, BS EN… Read more

Nov 10, 2010 | By Edvard

Emergency lights
Transformers

Oil-Filled, Inert-Gas System

A positive seal of the transformer oil may be provided by an inert-gas system. Here, the tank is slightly pressurized by an inert gas such as nitrogen. The main tank… Read more

Nov 08, 2010 | By Edvard

Oil transformer
Energy and Power

What is the cost of electricity?

Electrification in the early 20th century dramatically improved productivity and increased the well-being of the industrialized world. No longer a luxury – now a necessity – electricity powers the machinery,… Read more

Nov 02, 2010 | By Edvard

Cost Of Electricity
Energy and Power

Short-Circuit Electrical Currents

A short circuit is one of the major incidents affecting electrical systems. The consequences are often serious, if not dramatic: Although short circuits are less and less likely to occur… Read more

Oct 28, 2010 | By Edvard

Short-circuit current diagram
Energy and Power

Power System Stability

Power system stability is the ability of the system, for a given initial operating condition, to regain a normal state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. Stability is… Read more

Oct 23, 2010 | By Edvard

power-system-stability-2
Cables

Types of Underground Lines

There are two methods of installing underground lines. In the first method, underground raceway systems (ducts) are installed below grade and then cable is pulled through them. Ducts may or… Read more

Oct 22, 2010 | By Edvard



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