Technical Articles

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

There are many parameters that have an effect on the voltages in and around the substation area. Since voltages are site-dependent, it is impossible to design one grounding system that… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | Power Substation

Reasons for Substation Grounding System

Relationship Between Earthquakes And Substations

To secure and protect substation equipment from damage due to a seismic event, the relationship between earthquakes and substation components must first be understood. Earthquakes occur when there is a… Read more

Jan 09, 2011 | Power Substation

Earthquakes And Substations

Renewables And The Impact On Environment

Alternative energy sources, especially with regard to air emissions. The likely life-cycle emissions (taking into account fuel cultivation, harvesting, collection, transportation and processing, as well as power plant construction, operation… Read more

Jan 08, 2011 | Environment

NEMA TP1 Energy Efficiency Standard

Most commercial and industrial facilities require several low-voltage transformers to decrease the voltage received from the utility to the voltages used by various loads such as lighting, computers and other… Read more

Jan 08, 2011 | Energy Efficency

NEMA TP1 Energy Efficiency Standard

Solar Energy And Silver

The solar industry isn’t the largest consumer of silver, but it is a growing market that could give silver producers a boost. Most of the markets that silver serves follow… Read more

Jan 07, 2011 | Solar Power

Solar Energy And Silver

Transformer Losses Standards

Unlike many countries around the world, Europe has no mandatory standard on energy efficiency of distribution transformers. The two main documents which describe losses in transformers are: the European Standard… Read more

Jan 07, 2011 | Transformers

Transformer Losses Standards

SF6 gas as insulating and arc-quenching medium

Sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) is employed as insulation in all parts of the installation, and in the circuit-breaker also for arc-quenching. SF6 is an electronegative gas, its dielectric strength at… Read more

Jan 06, 2011 | High Voltage

Parallel Operation Of Transformers

Most transformers installed in parallel have the same kVA, turn ratios, and impedances, which can make it difficult for power engineers in industrial and commercial facilities to understand circulating currents… Read more

Jan 05, 2011 | Transformers

Parallel transformers - Siemens

Maintenance Of SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers

Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) is an excellent gaseous dielectric for high voltage power applications. It has been used extensively in high voltage circuit breakers and other switchgears employed by the power… Read more

Jan 04, 2011 | Maintenance

Maintenance Of SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers

Comparison Of Cable Insulating Materials

Electrical insulation materials are employed over the metallic conductors of underground cables at all voltage ratings. Polymeric materials are employed as the insulation, but the nature of the polymer may… Read more

Jan 03, 2011 | Cables

XLPE Insulated Power Cable

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