There are many methods applied to bolster the short circuit withstand capability of the transformers: improvement of the materials, reforming of the design and good maintenance in the operation process… Read more
Early consultation with the local Electricity Distributor is essential for agreement on a mutually approved MV/LV substation to act as the intake point for a particular site. This consultation is… Read more
The needs and exact precision of time synchronization in IEC 61850 based digital protection systems have evolved. With new technologies and better distribution methods, most modern intelligent electronic devices (IEDs)…...
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A low power factor causes poor system efficiency. The total apparent power must be supplied by the electric utility. With a low power factor, or a high-kilovar component, additional generating… Read more
A communication system consists of a transmitter, a receiver and communication channels. Type of medias and network topologies in communications provide different opportunities to advance the speed, security, dependability, and… Read more
When power supply systems for car manufacturing plant are planned, each individual problem can be faced in various ways: by means of technical solutions that feature specific technical advantages. This… Read more
In several previous articles I mentioned optical fibre in the context of substation automation, protection signaling, communication between electrical devices, LAN communications, etc. Now I will get into details of… Read more
As you already know, the real purpose of transmission line protection is to detect faults or abnormal operating conditions and to initiate corrective action. Protective relays must be able to… Read more