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The single line diagram (SLD) is the most basic of the set of diagrams that are used to document the electrical functionality of the substation. Its emphasis is on communicating… Read more
Mar 14, 2018 | Power Substation
This technical article explains the AC/DC schematic representation of the protection and control systems used on power networks. This includes AC schematics and DC schematics and diagrams that prominently feature… Read more
Mar 12, 2018 | Power Substation
There are few switching situations that differ from the duties standardized for switching devices in transmission and distribution systems. One of these special situations are generator-current breaking. Generator circuit-breakers are…...
Mar 09, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
When a CT manufacturer says that he is unable to manufacture the requested CT, nine times out of ten this is because the CT has been incorrectly specified. To eliminate… Read more
Mar 07, 2018 | Energy and Power
The selected protection principle affects the operating speed of the protection, which has a significant impact on the harm caused by short circuits. The faster the protection operates, the smaller… Read more
Mar 05, 2018 | Protection
Design of reactive power compensation panel is much different and not that simple like standard distribution panel. When dealing with such panels, there are dozen of parameters to specify and… Read more
Feb 28, 2018 | Energy and Power
System earthing involves the provision of a connection to the general mass of earth. This connection should have a resistance not greater than that required to operate safety mechanisms to… Read more
Feb 26, 2018 | Energy and Power
Transmission control center is the real heart of every utility’s power system operations. Typical transmission control centers have three main desks – the generation, transmission and scheduling desk. Let’s take…...
Feb 23, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
Like all other power system systems, no matter how carefully the system is designed, losses are present and must be modeled before an accurate representation of the system response can… Read more
Feb 21, 2018 | Transformers
The neutral conductor is a live conductor that is connected to the neutral point of the system and is able to contribute to the transmission of electric power. The neutral… Read more
Feb 19, 2018 | Energy and Power
Substation AC auxiliary systems are typically used to supply loads such as transformer cooling, oil pumps, and load tap changers, circuit breaker air compressors and charging motors, outdoor device heaters,… Read more
Feb 14, 2018 | Power Substation
There are situations when power system is run completely insulated from earth. The advantage of this is that a single phase-earth fault on the system does not cause any earth… Read more
Feb 12, 2018 | Energy and Power
Power utilities use telecommunication systems either as a support for grid assets’ operation or as the enabler for voice communications among operating staff. The main objective of utility telecommunications is…...
Feb 09, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
The distinction between digital and numerical relays is particular to Protection. Numerical relays are natural developments of digital relays due to advances in technology. They use one or more digital… Read more
Feb 07, 2018 | Protection
Although the manufacturers of relays dedicated to differential protection impose the necessary CT secondary characteristics required for proper operation, it is useful, for understanding and avoiding errors, to possess minimum… Read more
Feb 05, 2018 | Energy and Power