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Substation AC auxiliary systems are typically used to supply loads such as transformer cooling, oil pumps, and load tap changers, circuit breaker air compressors and charging motors, outdoor device heaters,… Read more
Feb 14, 2018 | Power Substation
There are situations when power system is run completely insulated from earth. The advantage of this is that a single phase-earth fault on the system does not cause any earth… Read more
Feb 12, 2018 | Energy and Power
Power utilities use telecommunication systems either as a support for grid assets’ operation or as the enabler for voice communications among operating staff. The main objective of utility telecommunications is…...
Feb 09, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
The distinction between digital and numerical relays is particular to Protection. Numerical relays are natural developments of digital relays due to advances in technology. They use one or more digital… Read more
Feb 07, 2018 | Protection
Although the manufacturers of relays dedicated to differential protection impose the necessary CT secondary characteristics required for proper operation, it is useful, for understanding and avoiding errors, to possess minimum… Read more
Feb 05, 2018 | Energy and Power
In this article, we describe method and technique of substation splitting and use of circuit breaker autoclosing that may be used for the control and limitation of the magnitude of…...
Feb 02, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
In industrial applications, the main types of equipment that generate harmonics are: static converters, arc furnaces, lighting, saturated reactors and other equipment, such as rotating machines which generate slot harmonics… Read more
Jan 31, 2018 | Energy and Power
Unbalance in the supply voltage is typically due to a broken phase condition somewhere in the upstream network. This may result from single-phase fuse failure or pole discrepancy of a… Read more
Jan 29, 2018 | Electric Motor
The purpose of a capacitor bank’s protective control is to remove the bank from service before any units or any of the elements that make up a capacitor unit are… Read more
Jan 24, 2018 | Energy and Power
The starting point for planning a switchgear installation is its single line diagram. This indicates the extent of the installation, such as the number of busbars and branches, and also… Read more
Jan 22, 2018 | High Voltage
The main faults in power networks are the single-phase short-circuit and the short-circuit to ground. The short-circuit to ground is a conductive connection between a point in the network belonging…...
Jan 18, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
First, let’s say few words about shaded-pole motors, and then dive into calculation procedure. A shaded pole motor is the simplest form of a single phase motor and is very… Read more
Jan 17, 2018 | Electric Motor
In order to understand network problems with triplen harmonics, first let’s have a short explanation of harmonic phase sequence and third harmonics. Power engineers have traditionally used symmetrical components to… Read more
Jan 15, 2018 | Energy and Power
The protection that is recommended and commonly applied for transformers is summarized in the following figures. It should be noted and recognized that these are general recommendations, not strict. More… Read more
Jan 12, 2018 | Protection
It’s not always an easy task to explain what is what in high voltage substations. Shapes of the major elements are mostly similar through substations, but there are also combinations… Read more
Jan 10, 2018 | Power Substation