Lock-Out / Tag-Out (LOTO) refers to the specific practices and guidelines to safeguard employees from the unexpected start-up, movement, activation, energizing, release of energy, etc of machinery, equipment, plant, systems… Read more
The commissioning procedure of substation busbars for differential protection and other busbar protection schemes involves a large number of input and output circuits that require a verification check in both… Read more
PLCs from different manufacturers can be programmed in various ways. Popular programming languages for PLCs are ladder diagrams, Function Block Diagrams (FBD), and statement list. With a few exceptions, a… Read more
The protection of power transformers is not just a question of detecting faults within the windings, cores, or tank. It’s very often a question of how the transformer is integrated…...
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The objectives of the protection system are: to limit damage to people and to the plant, permit different service conditions, guarantee maximum service continuity for the plant not affected by faults and activate the automatisms… Read more