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Technical Articles

Energy and Power

Grounding systems and their 3-letter classification

Low voltage systems supplying to consumer premises are predominantly solidly grounded. Protective ground connection to consumer premises (or extending the supply system ground to consumer premises) is however done in different… Read more

Apr 12, 2013 | By Edvard

Grounding systems and their 3-letter classification
SCADA

Responding to Cyber Intrusion in SCADA System

Continued from technical article: Detecting Cyber Intrusion in SCADA System The “three R’s” of the response to cyber intrusion are: Recording, Reporting, and Restoring. Theoretically, it would be desirable to… Read more

Apr 08, 2013 | By Edvard

Responding to Cyber Intrusion in SCADA System
Energy and Power

Detecting Cyber Intrusion in SCADA System

One of the axioms of cyber security is that although it is extremely important to try to prevent intrusions into one’s systems and databases, it is essential that intrusions be… Read more

Apr 06, 2013 | By Edvard

Detecting Cyber Intrusion in SCADA System
Industrial Automation

Benefits and Potential Drawbacks of VSDs

VSDs (Variable Speed Drives) offer several benefits, some of which are relatively easy to quantify, and others of which are less tangible, but there are some potential drawbacks, which must… Read more

Apr 03, 2013 | By Edvard

Benefits and Potential Drawbacks of VSDs
Power Substation

Active fire protection measures in power substation

Active fire protection measures are automatic fire protection measures that warn occupants of the existence of fire, and extinguish or control the fire. These measures are designed to automatically extinguish… Read more

Apr 01, 2013 | By Edvard

Active fire protection measures in power substation
Wind Power

Wind Energy End-Use Applications

Wind energy markets can be classified based on the end-use application of the technology. Wind energy projects are common for off-grid applications. However, the largest market potential for wind energy… Read more

Mar 30, 2013 | By Edvard

Wind Energy End-Use Applications
Electric Motor

Induction motor startup and losses calculation

The main objectives while starting an induction motor are: To handle high-starting current To achieve high-starting torque. As we know, rotor resistance determines starting torque. Usually, this rotor resistance is small,… Read more

Mar 25, 2013 | By Edvard

Induction motor startup and losses calculation
Lighting

Hospitality lighting design, Why it matters

The hospitality business involves serving people and giving them enjoyment. From restaurants to hotels, resorts, and even theme parks, facilities are designed with the intent of transporting guests from the… Read more

Mar 23, 2013 | By Edvard

The functional office lighting realized through 422 luminaires
Energy and Power

Lightning Protection System – Germany Regulations

The purpose of a lightning protection system is to protect buildings from direct lightning strikes and possible fire, or from the consequences of the load-independent active lightning current (non-igniting flash… Read more

Mar 22, 2013 | By Edvard

Lightning Protection System - Germany Regulations
Electrical Lectures

The Rheostat In Few Simple Words

A variable resistor can be made from a wirewound element, rather than a solid strip of material. This is called a rheostat. A rheostat can have either a rotary control… Read more

Mar 20, 2013 | By Edvard

Startup rheostat of VL10 3 kV DC electric locomotive
Electric Motor

Starting Motor With Auto-transformer

An auto-transformer starter makes it possible to start squirrel-cage induction motors with reduced starting current, as the voltage across the motor is reduced during starting. In contrast to the star-delta… Read more

Mar 18, 2013 | By Edvard

Starting Motor With Auto-transformer


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