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Technical Articles

Energy and Power

Simplify Downstream Installation with Cascading

Cascading provides circuit breakers placed downstream of a limiting circuit breaker with an enhanced breaking capacity. The limiting circuit breaker helps the circuit breaker placed downstream by limiting high short-circuit… Read more

Oct 16, 2012 | By Edvard

Simplify Downstream Installation with Cascading
Transformers

Heating of the Dry-type Transformer

Although transformers can be classified by core construction (shell or core type), the more functional types of standardized classifications are based on how the transformer is designed for its specific… Read more

Oct 15, 2012 | By Edvard

Heating of the Dry-type Transformer
Lighting

Difference Between Diffuse and Directed Light

Having dealt with light quantity, conside-ration must be given to the quality of light, the difference between diffuse light and directed light being one of the most important aspects. We… Read more

Oct 13, 2012 | By Edvard

Difference Between Diffuse and Directed Light
Energy and Power

NEC Requirements for Emergency Systems

Emergency systems are generally installed in buildings that are or can be occupied by 1000 or more persons or are more than 75 ft high. These are buildings where artificial… Read more

Oct 12, 2012 | By Edvard

NEC Requirements for Emergency Systems
Power Substation

Switching Impulse Test of the Transformer

The switching impulse test is applied to confirm the withstand of the transformer’s insulation against excessive voltages occurring during switching. During the switching impulse voltage test, the insulation between windings… Read more

Oct 11, 2012 | By Edvard

Switching Impulse Test of the Transformer
Energy and Power

Safety Clearance Recommendations for Electrical Panel

Working Space around Indoor Panel/Circuit Board (NES 312.2) Clearance around an Indoor electrical panel (NEC 110.26) Clearance for Conductor Entering in Panel (NES 408.5) Clearance between Bare Metal Busbar in… Read more

Oct 10, 2012 | By jiguparmar

Safety Clearance Recommendations for Electrical Panel
Protection

Overcurrent protection of transformer (NEC 450.3)

The overcurrent protection required for transformers is consider for Protection of Transformer only. Such overcurrent protection will not necessarily protect the primary or secondary conductors or equipment connected on the… Read more

Oct 08, 2012 | By jiguparmar

Overcurrent protection of transformer (NEC 450.3)
Energy and Power

Disturbances In LV Networks Due To Surges

There are two types of surge: those generated by a lightning impact and those resulting from electrical switchgear switching operations. Surges resulting from lightning strokes (see figure below) can affect… Read more

Oct 06, 2012 | By Edvard

Disturbances Due To Surges
Energy and Power

How to Protect Capacitor Banks?

Capacitor banks are used to compensate for reactive energy absorbed by electrical system loads, and sometimes to make up filters to reduce harmonic voltage. Their role is to improve the… Read more

Oct 05, 2012 | By Edvard

How to Protect Capacitor Banks?
Transformers

Dry Transformer Percent Impedance Definition

The percent impedance is the percent voltage required to circulate rated current flow through one transformer winding when another winding is short-circuited at the rated voltage tap at rated frequency. %Z is related… Read more

Oct 03, 2012 | By Edvard

Dry Transformer Percent Impedance Definition
Power Substation

Designing of HV Power Substation and Layout

Introduction Earthing and Bonding Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology (Earthing Materials) Layout of Substation Different Layouts for Substations (single busbar, mesh, 1 1/2 cb) Principle of Substation Layouts (spatial separation, maintenance zones) Components of… Read more

Oct 01, 2012 | By sprabakar22

Designing of High Voltage Power Substation and Layout


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