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Technical Articles

Energy and Power

Transformer Heat, Copper and Iron Losses

The thermal ratings of a transformer are determined by the following three factors: The amount of heat produced in the windings and connections. The amount of heat produced in the… Read more

Sep 06, 2012 | By Edvard

Transformer Heat, Copper and Iron Losses

Transformer differential protection (ANSI 87T)

Transformer differential protection protects against short-circuits between turns of a winding and between windings that correspond to phase-to-phase or three-phase type short-circuits. If there is no earthing connection at the… Read more

Sep 05, 2012 | By Edvard

SIPROTEC 4 7UT6 Differential Protection Relay for Transformers

How to Maximize Chiller Efficiency?

Chillers are the single largest energy-using component in most facilities, and can typically consume over 50% of the electrical usage. Chillers use approximately 20% of the total electrical power generated… Read more

Sep 04, 2012 | By Edvard

How to Maximize Chiller Efficiency? (on photo Carrier Chiller Water Cooled)
Energy and Power

Getting Electricity From Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Abstract Introduction Fuel Cell Working Principle of SOFC Materials Selection and Processing Cathode Electrolyte Anode Interconnection Types of SOFC Merits and Demerits Applications Stationary energy sources Transportation Military applications SOFC-GT… Read more

Sep 03, 2012 | By vinod ramireddy

Getting Electricity From Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Power Substation

Transformers Connected Directly to Generators

Power transformers connected directly to generators can experience excitation and short-circuit conditions beyond the requirements defined by ANSI/IEEE standards. Special design considerations may be necessary to ensure that a power transformer… Read more

Sep 01, 2012 | By Edvard

Generator transformer

Purpose of Shielded Isolation Transformer

A shielded transformer is a two-winding transformer, usually delta–star connected and serves the following purposes: – Voltage transformation from the distribution voltage to the equipment’s utilization voltage. – Converting a 3-wire… Read more

Aug 29, 2012 | By Edvard

Using shielded isolation transformer in power distribution systems
Energy and Power

Floating Neutral Impacts in Power Distribution

If the Neutral Conductor is opened, broke or lost at either of its source side (Distribution Transformer, Generator or at Load side – Distribution Panel of Consumer), the distribution system’s… Read more

Aug 27, 2012 | By jiguparmar

Floating Neutral Impacts in Power Distribution
Energy and Power

An Overview of Combined Cycle Power Plant

The Combined Cycle Power Plant or combined cycle gas turbine, a gas turbine generator generates electricity and waste heat is used to make steam to generate additional electricity via a… Read more

Aug 25, 2012 | By vinod ramireddy

An overview of Combined Cycle Power Plant (photo credit:

Power Transformer Construction – Windings

Continued from tech. article: Power Transformer Construction – Core The windings consist of the current-carrying conductors wound around the sections of the core, and these must be properly insulated, supported and… Read more

Aug 24, 2012 | By Edvard

750kVA dry type transformer windings

Power Transformer Construction – The Core

The construction of a power transformer varies throughout the industry. The basic arrangement is essentially the same and has seen little significant change in recent years, so some ofthe variations… Read more

Aug 23, 2012 | By Edvard

Power Transformer Construction - Core
Energy and Power

High resistance grounding equipment in mining applications

High resistance grounding equipment or permanently installed electrical distribution systems used in mines should be selected and applied as recommended for process industries. When mobile equipment is connected to the distribution system… Read more

Aug 22, 2012 | By Edvard

High resistance grounding equipment in mining applications

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